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Te Ahuwhenua Māori me te Pakanga

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I Hūrae 1940, ka tuhi a Wiremu Tau Hapa o Ōtangaroa ki te Pirimia, ki a Peter Fraser, e tuku noa ana i tōna whenua me āna mahi hei tautoko i te taha pakanga. E 200 ōna eka i roto i te Pararahi Poroka.  I a ia hoki ngā purapura me ngā taputapu katoa mō taua mahi.[1]  I te whakahoki a Tau Hapa i ngā pānuitanga e tukuna ana e te Kairēhita o te Tari Māori, e J.H Robertson, e te kaunihera hou hoki (ko te Māori Primary Production Council te ingoa) ki ngā kaumātua whakahirahira o ngā iwi.  I tuhia e Robertson,

“E mihi atu ana kia koutou i roto i te pouritanga mo tenei taimaha nui e peehi nei ia tatou ara, i te pakanga e kaikino mai nei i te tangata i tera taha o te Ao nei. Itemea kua riro a tatou tamariki ki te whawhai e tika ana tatou nga tangata noho kainga kite mahi oranga mo ratou. He nui nga kai e kainga tuku ana e nga tangata o Ingarangi, engari itemea ko etahi o nga whenua tuku kai mai ki Ingarangi kua riri ki raro i te mana o to hoariri, kua titiro penei mai ratou ki a tatou pata, tiihi, poaka piiwhi matene hoki.”[2]

I Ākuhata, ka tuhia he reta whakawhetai e te Hekeretari-ki-raro o te Tari Māori ki a Wiremu Tau Hapa mō ōna whakaaro atawhai, engari me te kupu, nā te kino o tōna whenua i kore ai ia e whakaae ki te pūtea e matea ana.   

“Kei te mihi te Kawanatanga ki te Iwi Maori e awhina nei i nga mahi mo te whaiwai a ko a koutou take e kaha ake ai te piki haere o nga mahi hei awhina i nga tikanga mo te whawhai kaore e kore ka whiriwhiria paitia e te Kawanatanga ina kokiritia mai aua take ki tona aroaro.”[3]

Ka kitea i roto o te reta a Wiremu Tau Hapa me te whakahoki a te kāwanatanga he hītori huna e pā ana ki te hau kāinga i te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua, arā, mō ngā mahi a ngā kaiahuwhenua Māori i te wā i tohe ai te kāwanatanga kia nui atu te whakaputa i ngā kai o ō rātou pāmu.

Ko tā te kāwanatanga o taua wā he whakanui noa i ngā mahi a ngā kaiahuwhenua Māori. Engari, kei roto i pūranga pukapuka tawhito, ka kitea he kōrero kē.  Kīhai ngā kaiahuwhenua Māori i tuku noatia i ā rātou mahi, ā, i te ātete rātou i ngā āpiha kāwanatanga me ngā Pākehā e whakatakē ana i tā te Māori whakamahi i ō rātou whenua.

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E ai ki te New Zealand Primary Production Council i te tau 1940 ‘The most important job to be done in New Zealand today is to produce more foodstuffs’.[4]  Pērā me Wiremu Tau Hapa, tokomaha ngā ahuwhenua Māori i pīrangi ki te tautoko i te kaupapa nei.  I taua tau, ka whakatūria he Komiti Māori ki Waiariki hei whakahaere i ‘the resources of the Maori Race in Man Power, Material and Land in a whole hearted endeavor to increase generally the output of those Primary products that are essential to the successful prosecution of the War’, ā, kia āwhinatia ngā mahi ahuwhenua a ngā tāngata Māori kia nui atu ngā kai e whakaputaina ana.[5]

 

I Hūrae 1940 i tū ai he hui ki Tūnohopū marae, i  Ōhinemutu, Rotorua ki te wānanga i ngā take ahuwhenua.  I reira a Āpirana Ngata rātou ko Henry Taipōrutu Te Mapu-o-te-rangi (Tai) Mitchell ko Judge Harvey mā.  I kōrero rātou mō te mahi kānga me te poaka, ā, me pēhea kia reri rātou ‘for the coming struggle’.[6]  E ai ki a Tai Mitchell, mā ngā mahi a te hau kāinga e āwhinatia ai te ope i tāwāhi.  I te hui o te Māori Primary Products Committee i Rotorua i te marama o mua, ka matapakitia e Mitchell ‘the necessity of increased production’ nā te mea ‘without an abundance of food and food stuffs the war cannot be prosecuted to a successful conclusion’.[7]

Nā Harvey rātou ko Mitchell ko Ruhi Pūruru ko Tīweka Ānaru (arā, nā ngā rangatira o te komiti hou, o te Māori Primary Production Committee) he pānuitanga i tuku atu, i whakaritea ai ngā mahi ahuwhenua ki ngā pakanga o mua.

“Our soldiers, Maori and Pakeha, in England must be supplied with food in plenty because without food the strength of a warrior leaves him. In our own Maori history the place of the warrior was in the fight and if fighting Pa was a long way from home[,] the food cultivations and supply we noted that fact that recording it in the naming of the Pa… today our fighting pa [is] in England… the problem is an old one to our people and it will be solved if only we turn back the pages of our history and tackle it as our tipuna would have done.”

I kitea whānuitia taua pānuitangawhakaohooho, ā, ka tū he hui ki Te Teko, ki Matakana, ki Kaikohe hoki.  E whā āna kaupapa: ‘Man and Women Power’, ‘Land and Material’, ‘Spirit and Morale’, me ‘Organisation’.  Ā, ka tonoa te iwi Māori kia ‘take stock of its strength, record that strength in terms of bacon pigs or other primary products; and let us know what assistance is essential so that your full weight can be applied to the Government’s drive’.[8]

Heoi, ko te raruraru tuatahi, kīhai ngā mea e matea ana i tino mōhiotia.  I mea atu a Ngata, ‘we are doubtful of what is required of us’.[9]  Arā, me whakamōhio e te kāwanatanga tāna i pīrangi ai.[10]  I uaua te kohikohi mai i ngā whika e pā ana ki ngā kai, engari, he rite te karanga a te kāwanatanga kia kaha ake te whakatipu kai, ina koa, ko ngā poaka, ko te pāre, me te kānga hoki.  I ui atu ētahi, me pēhea ngā rīwai, engari ka whakahoki te kāwanatanga, ka tūhene kē ngā rīwai’, nā reira,  ‘We should not unduly encourage the Maoris in this direction’.[11]

I hāereere taua komiti ki ngā kāinga o te motu whakanui ai i ngā mahi ahuwhenua.  Ka paingia ngā mahi a te komiti e te kāwanatanga.  Ka tuhi a Judge Harvey ki te Tari Māori, e whakamārama ana i tētahi hui i kaikaha ai ngā Māori ki te uru ki roto i ngā mahi ahuwhenua.  Ka meatia hoki, ‘We met the Ringatu meeting at Ruatoki last Sunday, and could not but be pleased with the response of that representative gathering’.[12]  Ka whakanuitia hoki ngā mahi ahuwhenua e Ngata. ‘Everywhere in the Waikato, the King Country and North Auckland, the Maoris are also making an effort to produce more than last year’.[13]  Ki te whakaaro o te Tari Māori, e 25% pea te pikinga o ngā kai e whakaputaina ana.[14]  Engari, ki ētahi āpiha, ko te inoi a te Māori ki te kāwanatanga kia tukuna he pūtea hei whakapai i ngā pāmu, he tono kaipaoke anake.[15]  He kaikiri kē ngā kōrero a ētahi āpiha.[16]

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Kīhai i roa, ka tūātia te ingoa o te komiti ki te Māori Primary Production, Man Power and Rehabilitation Committee.  I hui anō rātou ki Rotorua i te tau 1942.

He maha ngā tūponotanga mai i te tīmatanga o āna mahi: kua wehe kē atu te Ope Māori ki Ōropi, kua uru a Amerika ki roto i te pakanga, ā, kua whakanohoia ngā tini hōia Marikena ki Aotearoa, tae atu ki te 45,000 te tokomaha i ētahi wā.  Ā, i Hune 1942, ka whakaae te kāwanatanga kia whakatūria te Māori War Effort Organisation (MWEO).  Ka warewaretia e ētahi kaituhi hītori, ko tētahi kaupapa nui a te MWEO, me ngā komiti ā-iwi hoki, he akiaki i ngā mahi ahuwhenua.  Ko tētahi o ngā tono a te kāwanatanga ki te MWEO me ngā kaiahuwhenua Māori, mā rātou e whakatipu ngā tāna kumara e 2000 hei whāngai i ngā hōia Marikena.[17]

Puta noa te tau 1942, ka whiwhi tonu te kāwanatanga ki ngā reta a ngā tāngata Māori e pīrangi ana ki te tautoko i ngā mahi ahuwhenua.  Hei tauira, ka tuhi a Gabriel Elliot ki a Paraire Paikea (ko te Mema ia o te Taitokerau, ko te Minita hoki o te MWEO), e kī ana, ‘The tribe of our old friend Pouaka Wehi are anxious with myself to use some of our large tract of available land to assist the war production effort in the shape of wheat growing…’, ā, ‘Many of our people are working full time in the timber industry and these are willing to pool their services during Saturday and Sunday to assist in securing the maximum production’.[18]  Engari, kīhai te kāwanatanga i whakaae, e mea ana ko te tono ‘obviously an attempt to get free wheat seed’.  Ka kī hoki te Minister of Primary Production for War Purposes, e kore ia e whakaae ki te tuku atu i ngā moni utu-kore, i ngā purapura utu-kore rānei, ā, me waiho mā te Tari Māori aua momo tono hei whakahaere.[19]

I te tau 1945, e tata ana ki te mutunga o te pakanga, ka puta mai tētahi whakahē mō ngā mahi ahuwhenua o Ngāi Māori.  Ka whakapaea e tētahi kaiahuwhenua Pākehā, ko R.L. Cassie te ingoa, o te North Taranaki Primary Production Council i Ngāmotu, arā, kāore ngā Māori i “purei i te kēmu” i te wā pakanga.[20]  Ka hōrapa whānuitia te whakapae a Cassie, ā, ka kaha whakahēngia.  Kīhai i whakaaetia e J.H. Flowers, e te āpiha manpower o taua rohe. ‘The Maoris have kept up their battalion without conscription. They have steadily increased production right through the war and have not called for men to come out of the Army to help. They have stepped up maize production, sometimes as a lot. They have done shearing and worked in the timber industry and the railways as a war effort. I know how they have answered every call without question and without thought of gain’.[21] I tuhia he reta e T. Wipiti o Mangorei ki te Taranaki Herald hei whakahoki i te kōrero a Cassie.

That we are proud of, and above all, they have also unselfishly given unto the war effort production, their human strength with unselfish denial… Hoping the public will see fit to interpret the remarks made in our endeavour to uphold production and not shirk conscription, which all goes to help the war effort.[22]

I te tau 1944, ka kohia e ngā āpiha o te MWEO ngā kaute o ngā kai kua whakatipua, arā, tua atu i ngā kai ake mā ngā kaiahuwhenua.  Ahakoa ehara pea ngā whika i te tino tika, ka kitea e ngā āpiha o te kāwanatanga ngā tino mahi a te pāmu Māori hei āwhina i ngā mahi pakanga, ā, i nui atu tā rātou whakaputa kai i tā ngā kaiahuwhenua Pākehā.[23]

‘Aid to Britain’ 1947

Ahakoa i mutu te pakanga, kīhai te mahi kai i mutu.  Ka whakamutua te MWEO, engari, ka haere tonu ngā mahi ahuwhenua.  I te tau 1947, ka whakamānutia e te kāwanatanga te kaupapa ‘Aid to Britain’, ā, ka tonoa anō ngā kaiahuwhenua Māori katoa kia tautoko i taua kaupapa.  Ko te mahi he whakaputa kai mā Ingarangi, hei āwhina i tōna ōhanga, kia wini hoki te wā rangimarie i a Ingarangi.  Ko te kōrero, ‘our future economic progress depends on the restoration of world trade’, ā, ko Ingarangi te whenua e hokona nei te nuinga o ngā kai a Aotearoa.[24]  Nā, kīhai he Māori i whakatūria ake hei mema o te Komiti Āwhinatia-a-Piritene, engari, kīhai i roa ka tonoa he tangata Māori hei mema o taua komiti ‘to represent the Maori viewpoint and serve as a Liaison Officer in matters affecting the calls which were made on the Maori peoples in regard to extra production and other matters connected with the extended Aid for Britain Campaign’.[25] Ka whakatūria a Tipi Tainui Rōpiha, ko te Hekeretari-ki-raro Tuarua ia, ko te Kaitiaki Tuarua hoki o ngā Pūtea Māori.[26]  Ko Te Rangiātaahua Kiniwē (Rangi) Royal hoki tētahi i tū hei mema o taua komiti i muri i a ia.

Ko te mahi a Rōpiha mā he tūtaki i ngā Kairēhita, i ngā Āpiha ā-Rohe, i ngā Rūnanga ā-Iwi, i ngā Komiti ā-Iwi hoki, ki te akiaki i ngā mahi ahuwhenua.  Ā, i te tau 1947, ka toro atu te Kaunihera Āwhinatia-a-Piritene ki ngā pito o Aotearoa ki te kōrero ki ngā rangatira o Ngā Puhi, o Te Arawa, o Tūhoe, o Ngāti Awa, o Whakatōhea, o Te Whānau a Apanui, o Ngāti Porou, o Takitimu, o Ngāti Kahungunu, o Ruahine hoki.  I muri i ēnei hui, ka tuhia he pūrongo e tētahi mema o te komiti:

“We were fortunate in contacting most the leaders of Maoridom, and they assured us of their fullest support to the Campaign. In most cases, tribal committees have agreed to undertake the responsibility of organising the drive which the Maoris are supporting with the enthusiasm that has always characterised their efforts whenever there is a national crisis…. We feel confident that our recent trip would influence the Maori people to bring all their energy to bear on the problem of increasing food production for export to Britain”.

Ka matapakitia e taua pūrongo kua nui haere te whakaputanga atu o te pata, o te pēkana, o te kānga, ā, i ngā mānia mōmona i Tūranga, i Wairoa, i Heretaunga, o te tōmato, o te apareka [asparagus], o te hua kakau [cane fruit], o te pī hoki.[27]

Pērā me ngā mahi o te wā pakanga, ka kōrerotia e ngā iwi Māori ō rātou hiahia, ā rātou here hoki i aua hui.  Hei tauira, ka tonoa e ētahi iwi ngā taputapu ā-pāmu, arā, ngā waea, ngā taiepa, me ngā tarakihana. Ka rangona hoki he karanga kia whakapaitia te noho o ngā whānau, kia whakamanahia ngā kī taurangi kua warewaretia e te kāwanatanga, ā, kia tautokona paitia ngā rūnanga ā-iwi me ērā atu rōpū Māori.  I te hui ki Rotorua, he ngākau whakapuke o Te Arawa ki te oati i tā rātou ‘manpower and resources’, engari ko tō rātou tino hiahia kia tū motuhake ngā mahi a te Māori i ā te Pākehā.  I rite te kupu a te Komiti ā-Iwi o Te Whakatōhea.  I tautoko a Ngāi Tūhoe i te kaupapa, engari, ko tā rātou tono kia tirotirohia te ngāhorohoro o ō rātou awa, ā, kia hangaia he whare kai he mea taurangi e te kāwanatanga i mua.  I Tūranga, ka whakaaetia katoatia tā te kāwanatanga kaupapa, engari, ka pīrangitia he pahi hei kawe i ngā tamariki i Whāngārā ki Tūranga, me ngā whakangungu ahuwhenua mō ngā hōia e hoki mai ana.[28]

Kāore anō te rangahau nei kia kite i te pēheatanga o ngā mahi i roto i ngā kāinga Māori e pā ana ki te kaupapa nei.  Hei aha koa, i te tau 1947, ka tuhi a Fintan Patrick Walsh (koia te Tiamana o te Kaunihera ā-Motu mō Āwhinatia-a-Piritene) ki a Rōpiha, e kī ana: ‘I have the pleasure in writing to you to express the Council’s keen appreciation of the encouraging efforts being made by the Maori people in their campaign to assist Britain’.[29]

 

Whakaahua: Te Ahuwhenua Māori, i Kakariki e tata ana ki Ruatōria, Tairāwhiti. Ko Paul Toroa rāua ko tana wahine, e pupuri ana i ētahi kanga i whakatipua i te tau o mua.  Hepetema, 1947.  Kāore e mōhiotia ana ko wai te kaiwhakaahua, R21011135, Archives New Zealand.

 

[1] Wiremu Tau Hapa ki a Peter Fraser, 15 Hūrae 1940. Whakamāoritanga. Farm Productions - National War Effort - Aid for Britain Council, MA1 Box 379, 19/1/593, 1940-1947, Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga, Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Nō tēnei kōnae ngā kupu tāpiri e whai iho nei.

[2] J.H Robertson, ‘Increase in Primary Production’, 10 Hūrae 1940.

[3] Under Secretary Native Department ki a Wiremu Tau Hapa, 20 Ākuhata 1940.

[4] Primary Production Council Meeting, Wairoa, 20 Hune 1940.

[5] Waiariki District Maori Primary Products Committee, kāore he rā.

[6] Minutes of Meeting Held at Tunohopu Meeting House, Ohinemutu, 1 Hūrae 1940.

[7] Meeting of the Maori Primary Production Committee, Rotorua, 27 Hune 1940.

[8] Judge Harvey, Tai Mitchell, Ruhi Pururu & Tiweka Anaru, ‘To the Maori People of __________’, 3 Hūrae 1940.

[9] Minutes of Meeting Held at Tunohopu Meeting House, Ohinemutu, 1 Hūrae 1940.

[10]The Star, 24 Hūrae 1940.

[11] ‘Maori Primary Production’, 11 Hūrae 1940.

[12] ‘Primary Production’, 5 Hūrae 1940. 

[13] The Star, 24 Hūrae 1940.

[14] Native Department, ‘Increase in Primary Production’, 12 Hūrae 1940.

[15] ‘Primary Production’, 11 Hūrae 1940.

[16] ‘Increase in Primary Production’, 5 Hūrae 1940.

[17] ‘Meeting of Convening Committee of Maori Primary Production, Man Power, and Mobolisation’,  1 Hepetema 1942.

[18] Gabriel Elliot to Paikea, 3 Hepetema 1942.

[19] Minister of Primary Production for War Purposes ki te Minister of Native Affairs, 7 Hepetema 1942.

[20] The Taranaki Herald, 13 Pēpuere 1945.

[21] The Taranaki Herald, 13 Pēpuere 1945.

[22] The Taranaki Herald, 15 Pēpuere 1945.

[23] Maori War Effort Production Returns, various dates, MA1 Box 379, 19/1/593, 1940-1947, ANZ, Wellington.

[24] ‘Aid to Britain’, undated, MA1 Box 379, 19/1/593, 1940-1947, Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga, Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

[25] F.P Walsh ki te Native Department, ‘Aid for Britain Committee – Co-opted Member Representing Maoris’, 15 Hepetema 1947.

[26] Chairman of Emergency Production and Trade Committee ki a Walsh, 29 Hepetema 1947.

[27] ‘Aid to Britain Campaign: Itinerary of Production Committee’, 2 Ōketopa-18 Ōketopa 1947.

[28] ‘Aid to Britain Campaign: Itinerary of Production Committee’, 2 Ōketopa-18 Ōketopa 1947.

[29] Walsh ki a Ropiha, 28 Noema, 1947.

Whakapā Mai