Please enable JS

Te iwi Māori me te Ope Kāinga: “tribal leadership (consistent with military efficiency)”

M home guard

E mōhiotia whānuitia ana he ope motuhake te Hokowhitu-a-Tū, arā, ko ngā hōia Māori i haere ki tāwāhi whawhai ai.  Kāore pea e mōhiotia ana te tohetohe kia tūria he rōpū Māori, kia whakatūria hoki he āpiha Māori i roto i te Ope Kāinga [Home Guard] o Aotearoa.  Kua kōrero kētia te ope kāinga o Tuahiwi kei te paetukutuku nei. Engari, kei te whakatewhatewhatia e tēnei kōrero te taukumekume kia hangaia he rōpū motuhake mō te iwi Māori, kia Māori hoki ngā kaihautū o aua ope.

 

I Pēpuere 1943, ka tū he whakatūtū ki Rangiuru Pā, e tata ana ki Te Puke, i te aroaro o ngā tino kaingārahu rātou ko te āpiha kaikimi hōia (ko Meiha Henry Te Reiwhati Vercoe (Ngāti Pikiao) ko ngā mema Māori tokorua (ko Parāire Karaka Paikea (Te Uri-o-Hau/Ngāti Whātua) rāua ko Āpirana Ngata (Ngāti Porou).[1]  E ai ki tā Ngata kōrero, ko te whāinga o te tūngārahu nei he whakaputa mai i ‘a better understanding between the Maori and the Pakeha’. Ko tōna pīrangi: ‘all Maoris to take part in the war effort, backed by their elders and their women folk’. Ka mea hoki a Paikea, ko Ngāi Māori ‘must get together in the War effort so that they would not be found wanting’. I kōrero hoki a Meiha-Tianara Bell, me te kī ‘[he] was gaining knowledge of the Maori problems relating to the Maori War Effort’, ā, ka whakapuaki ia, māna e whakatū he puni whakangungu hōia ‘which would enable the best leaders from the Maori Race to be chosen as leaders of their people in the Home Guard’.

Ko te whāinga o te whakatūtū nei he akiaki kia tautokona noatia ngā mahi pakanga a te iwi Māori kā tahi; ka rua, he whakautu hoki ki ngā Māori e whakahē ana i te kore whakaae kia tūria he rōpū motuhake, ā, kia ārahina hoki ēnei ope e ngā āpiha Māori.  Koinei ‘the Maori problems relating to the Maori War Effort’ i meatia nei e Bell.  I muri tata mai, ka tukuna e Ngata he waea muna ki te pirimia, ki a Peter Fraser, e kī ana, nā ēnei “raruraru”, kua ara mai he hūngeingei nui; ‘If Maori efforts frustrated in this the most important aspect of policy repercussions will be unfavourable whole Maori War Effort’.[2] 

I puta mai te manawapā nei i te whakatau a te Rūnanga Pakanga (War Cabinet) i te tau 1942, kia nukuhia te kaupapa o ngā āpiha ā-iwi ki roto i ngā rōpū o te Ope Kāinga.  Kua whakapuakina noatia tēnei whakatau e ngā kaituhi hītori, engari kāore anō rātou kia āta titiro ki te pēheatanga o te kaupapa nei i roto i ngā tini rōpū o te Ope Kāinga.[3]

I te tekautau 1940, ehara i te mea hou te karanga a te iwi Māori kia whakatūria he hanganga motuhake, ā-tōrangapū, ā-tikanga, ā-hākinakina, ā-hōia hoki.  E ai ki a Aroha Harris, ‘an informal parallel development, or inadvertent segregation, was therefore established, although as a response to exclusion rather than an enforced regime’.[4]

I puta te mānukanuka o ngā Māori o te Ope Kāinga mai i te whakaritenga o te Rūnanga Pakanga i whakaaetia ai te kaiārahitanga ā-iwi, engari, e anga ana ki ngā tikanga papai o te tauā hōia, arā, ‘tribal leadership (consistent with military efficiency)’. Mai i te tīmatanga, ka tohea e te Komiti Pāremata Māori (MPC) kia whāia ngā tikanga Māori, ahakoa e hāngai ana ki ngā tikanga tauā, kāwanatanga hoki, kāore rānei.  I mōhiotia hoki e te kāwanatanga, nā te ‘tremendous field to cover, both in remote country districts, and the larger towns’, me uru ngā tāngata Māori ki roto i ngā mahi kimi hōia. Ā, e ai ki a Ralph Ngatata Love, ‘the crisis of the war… clearly demonstrated that the Maori Members [of Parliament] were better able to work with the people than the [Native] Department’.[5]

Nō Ākuhata 1940 te Ope Kāinga i whakatūria ai e te Rūnanga Pakanga.  I roto i ā rātou mahi, he tautiaki i ngā takutai, he whakareri i ngā waonga o Aotearoa kei whakaekea e te hoariri.  Pērā me te Ope ki tāwhiti, ka uru ngā tini tāngata.  Ka waru ngā marama, 1,200 ngā rōpū, ā, e 98,000 ngā tāne (neke atu i te 15 tau) kua rēhita. Ka hira ake te Ope Kāinga i muri i te whakatokenga a Hāpani i Pearl Harbour i te 7 Tīhema 1941, me te horapa haere o te pakanga ki te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa.  Ka whakaturea kia uru ngā tāne Pākehā ki roto i te Ope Kāinga, engari, i runga i te kaupapa o te kāwanatanga o taua wā, e tūao ana ngā tāne Māori.[6]

I Māehe 1942, ka mea mai a Paikea, 10,229 ngā Māori ka whakaurua e te Maori War Effort Organisation (MWEO) ki roto i te Ope Kāinga.[7] He rerekē te whakaaro o Ngata, kīhai ia i tino aro ki te Ope Kāinga. Ko tāna kōrero i roto te whare pāremata: ‘All talk about home defence, Home Guard, and so on, prior to the shedding of New Zealand blood abroad was all right. That blood is shed and it is calling for a follow-up… Their real duty is over there. That is the place one has to meet Hitler, not here. The old Maori warrior did not hang about his meeting-house waiting for the enemy; he went out on to the hills and ranges to meet him’.[8]

I a Ngata e whakapau kaha ana mō te Hokowhitu a Tū i tāwahi, ka akiaki a Paikea me te MWEO kia kimihia he tāngata Māori mō te Ope Kāinga.  He pai hoki tēnei mahi mā ngā tāngata kāore e hiahia ana ki te haere ki tāwāhi whawhai ai, engari, e pai ana ki te wawao i Aotearoa.  I whakanuitia te Ope Kāinga e te Kīngitanga.  Hei tauira, ka kī mai a Tonga Mahuta i Hune 1941, i muri i tētahi hui ‘we all agreed that we should join the Home Guard’.[9]  I Māehe 1943, ka tuhi a Te Puea Hērangi ki a P.H. Bell, ki te Āpiha Whakahaere o te Northern Military District kia hangaia he puni whakangungu mō te Ope Kāinga ki Ngāruawāhia, ā,  ‘the South Auckland Maori people can prove they are 100% prepared to guard the land of the “Long White Cloud”’.[10]

Ka nui haere ngā Māori i roto i te Ope Kāinga, ka pupū mai hoki ngā tini tono a ngā iwi Māori puta noa te motu, a Paikea hoki, kia tū he rōpū motuhake, kia whakaeatia hoki te kaupapa o te kaiārahitanga ā-iwi.  I Māehe 1941, ka tuhi a Paikea ki te Pirimia, ki a Peter Fraser, kua mōtinitia e te MWEO, ‘it be the policy of the Government to encourage the formation of Maori Units for Home Defence’. I kī hoki te reta a Paikea, mehemea ka taea, me ārahi ēnei rōpū ‘by their own officers and NCOs’.[11]  Hei tauira, i Āperira 1942, ka tuhi a Eric J. Bell ki te Minita o te Kaupapa Waonga, ka maha ngā tono a ngā Māori o Matatā, kia tū he rōpū Māori, ā, kāore ngā āpiha Pākehā e pīrangitia ana.[12] Kīhari i roa, ka whakahorapatia te kaupapa o te kaiārahitanga ā-iwi ki te Ope Kāinga, ā, ka ngana a Paikea kia whakamanahia taua kaupapa.[13] Engari, ka tae mai ngā whakahē a ngā iwi Māori i te whakatū tonu i ngā Pākehā hei āpiha. E ai ki te Minita o te Kaupapa Waonga, he āhua ‘unfortunate and misguided’ ēnei tohetohe.[14]

I Hūrae 1942, ka tuhi a Paikea ki te Minita o te Kaupapa Waonga, e whakamārama ana, tērā ētahi Māori ‘in various parts of New Zealand’ kua uru ki roto i te Ope Kāinga, engari, kāore e haere ana ki ngā whakatūtū, ‘owing to their marked dislike to serve under certain Pakeha Officers’.[15] I Mei 1942, ka kitea hoki e ngā āpiha tauā o Whanganui he hiahia nō te iwi Māori kia tūria he rōpū Māori i roto i te Ope Kāinga, ā, he tono kia whakatūria he āpiha Māori mō ō rātou rōpū.[16]

I kitea te ngākau āmaimai nei i te whakatūtū hōia ki Te Puke kua kōrerohia i runga ake nei.  E mārama ana, kīhai a Ngāta rāua ko Paikea i whakaae ki ō Meiha-Tianara Bell whakaaro.  E ai ki a Bell: ‘Because a man’s great-great-grandfather was a mighty warrior, it is not to say that the great-great grandson is going to be an efficient officer’. Engari, ka miramira a Ngata rāua ko Paikea, kāore te iwi Māori e āwhina noa ana i ngā mahi pakanga; ka matea kētia kia mārie te ngākau.  Nā reira i inoia ai he rōpū motuhake me ngā āpiha Māori.  Ka tau te take nei i te whakaaetanga a Bell kia tūria he puni hei whakangungu i ngā Māori o te Ope Kāinga.  Ka mutu te tau, ka tū ngā puni e rima ki Whangārei, ki Ngāruawāhia, ki te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi, ki Wharekahika, ki Wairoa hoki.

Heoi, i taua wā, tērā ētahi take i memeha haere ai te Ope Kāinga. Mō te kāwanatanga, ahakoa e whakahirahira ana te Ope Kāinga hei wawao i Aotearoa; he take nui hoki te mahi kai, ina koa i ngā wā hauhake.  Ka haere tonu te pakanga, ka nui ake te whakaputa kai i ngā mahi wawao.   Ka tae ki waenganui o te tau 1943, kua iti haere hoki te hiahia ki ngā hōia mō te Hokowhitu-a-Tū.[17]  I meatia e te Chief Liaison Officer o te MWEO kia whakamutua ngā puni whakaako e rima ‘until the end of the producing season – say the end of February’. Nā, i runga i ngā pūrongo o te Tari Ahuwhenua kua tokoiti rawa ngā kaimahi, me te whakaaro e kore a Aotearoa e whakaekea e te hoahiri, ka wānanga ngā āpiha tauā kia whakarērea pūtia aua puni. 

E ai ki aua āpiha, kāore he tino wāriu tō te Ope Kāinga hei ope whawhai, engari, ‘from a national point of view the Maori Elders and authorities generally in the Maori districts of Gisborne and Hawke’s Bay hold a very high opinion of the improvements in Maori youth, caused by attendance at these camps’.[19] Nā, ka nui te take nei kia tū tonu ngā puni nei?  Ko te whakatau, kāore. Ka tukuna he whakahau ki ngā takiwā tauā katoa: ‘All Maori Home Guards Training Schools are to be closed forthwith until further notice. Staff to be demobilised’.[20] I pērātia hoki te Ope Kāinga katoa o Aotearoa, arā, ka tīmata te whakapaku i ā rātou mahi i waenga i te tau 1943.[21]

He āhua uaua te whakatau, he painga i puta mai i te Ope Kāinga Māori, kāore rānei. Ka kitea te pīrangi o te iwi Māori ki te whaimana i roto i ā rātou mahi i te wā pakanga nei.  Nā konei, nā te whakapāpā o te kaupapa kaiārahitanga ā-iwi ki ngā “tikanga papai” o te taha tauā, i puta mai ai tēnei manawapā.  Hei tauira tēnei o te whakapiringa o te iwi Māori me te kāwanatanga i ngā wā o te pakanga.[22]

 

Whakaahua: He whakaahua mokomokorea nō tētahi wāhanga o te Ope Kāinga e whakatūtū ana ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. Auckland Star, 10 Mei 1941.

 

[[1]] He hōia a Vercoe nō te Pakanga o Awherika-ki-te-Tonga (1899-1902), nō te Pakanga Tutahi o te Tau. Tirohia: Whakahuihui Vercoe. 'Vercoe, Henry Te Reiwhati', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/3v5/vercoe-henry-te-reiwhati (He mea titiro 28 Mei 2020)

[2] Ngata ki a Fraser, 9 Pēpuere 1943, AD1 304/6/21, ANZ, Wellington.

[3] Claudia Orange, ‘An Exercise in Maori Autonomy: The Rise and Fall of the Maori War Effort Organisation’, New Zealand Journal of History, 21, 1 (1987): 157; Claudia Orange, ‘Maori War Effort Organisation’, i roto i I. McGibbon (ētita), Oxford Companion to New Zealand Military History, (Auckland: Oxford University Press, 2000), wh.309.

[4] Aroha Harris, ‘Persistence and Resilience, 1920-1945’, i roto i A. Anderson, J. Binney, A. Harris (eds.), Tangata Whenua: A History, (Wellington: Bridget Williams Books, 2015), wh.313.

[5] R. Ngatata Love, ‘Policies of Frustration: The growth of Maori Politics: The Ratana-Labour era’, Tuhinga Kairangi, Victoria University of Wellington, 1977, wh.338-339.

[6] Nancy Taylor, The Home Front, Puka.1 (Wellington: Historical Publications Branch, 1986), wh. 473.

[7] Mai i J.V.T. Baker, War Economy, (Wellington: Historical Publications Branch, 1986), wh.453.

[8] New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, Puka.259, wh.295.

[9] Love, ‘Policies of Frustration’, wh.337.

[10] Te Puea Herangi ki a P.H Bell, 3 Māehe 1943, AD1 304/6/21, ANZ, Wellington.

[11] Paikea ki a Fraser, 27 Māehe, 1941, EA1 83/3/11, ANZ, Wellington

[12] Eric J. Bell ki te Minita o te Kaupapa Waonga, 28 Āperira 1942, AD1 304/6/21, ANZ, Wellington

[13] Paikea ki te Minita o te Kaupapa Waonga, 20 Hūrae 1942, AD1 312/1/22, ANZ, Wellington

[14] Minita o te Kaupapa Waonga ki te Paikea, 17 Ākuhata 1942, AD1 304/6/21, ANZ, Wellington.

[15] Paikea ki te Minita o te Kaupapa Waonga, 30 Hūrae 1942, AD1 304/6/21, ANZ, Wellington.

[16] Home Guard/Maori Rally – Wanganui – 2nd May, AD1 304/6/21, ANZ, Wellington.

 [17] Jonathan Sarich rāua ko Andrew Francis, Aspects of Te Rohe Potae Political Engagement 1939-c.1975: Government Provisions for Local Self Government for Te Roge Potae Hapu and Iwi, He Pūrongo nō te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, 2011, wh.52.

[18] J.A. Robertson ki te Minita o te Kaupapa Waonga, 1 Oketopa, 1943, AD1 304/6/21, ANZ, Wellington.

[19] District Commandant, Central Military District ki te Army Headquarters, 12 Oketopa 1943, AD1 304/6/21, ANZ, Wellington.

[20] Call and Instructions, 15 Oketopa, 1943, AD1 304/6/21, ANZ, Wellington.

 [21] Taylor, The Home Front, wh.480.

[22] Orange, ‘An Exercise in Maori Autonomy’.

 

Whakapā Mai