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Sister Atawhai, Hīhita Weteriana

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Maori Home Front Blog Avatar
Sarah Christie
24 Hōngongoi, 2021

Kei te Methodist Church Archives i Ōtautahi ngā reta a Rīpeka Huingariri Atawhai Wilcox (Ngā Puhi) e whakakitea nei he kōrero mō āna ake wheako i te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua, me ngā tini putanga kētanga i whakapā mai ki ngā kaiora o ngā tāngata Māori o taua wā.

I whānau mai a Rīpeka ki Waiomio i Pēwhairangi i te tau 1907.  I tōna taitamāhinetanga, ka neke ia ki Ōtautahi kia whakangungutia hei hīhita [deaconess] Weteriana.[1] He kaimahi wāhine ngā hīhita e mihingare ana, e tuku ana i ngā ratonga toko-i-te-ora.  Hei wāhanga o te whakangungu hīhita nei, ka ako ia i ngā mahi ako kura, i ngā mahi nēhi ā-takiwā hoki.  No tōna putanga mai i taua kura, ko ia te hīhita Māori tuatahi o te Hāhi Weteriana. Ko “Sister Atawhai” tōna ingoa mahi, ā, ka tukuna ia ki te Mīhana Māori o te Hāhi i Waikato mahi ai.[2]  I ngā tau tōmua o te tekautau 1930, i Te Kūiti me Ōkaiawa ia e mahi ana, ā, ka tukuna ia ki Ngāmotu i te tau 1935, ki Hokianga i te tau 1940, ka neke ai ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1943.[3]

E kitea ana te āwangawanga mō te wā e heke mai nei i roto i ngā reta a Hīhita Atawhai i te pānuitanga o te 4 o Hepetema 1939 ka tū nei a Aotearoa hei hoariri ki Tiamani.  I te putanga o taua rongo, i te whakareri te Mīhana Weteriana o Ngāmotu i tō rātou puni mō te mutunga-wiki o te Labour Day.  I tuhi mai te Hupiritene o te Mīhana, a George Laurenson, ki a Hīhita Atawhai, e akiaki ana kia tū tonu te puni, ahakoa te pānuitanga mō te pakanga.  Ka whakatenatenatia kia manaaki rātou i a rātou anō, kia whakaohoohotia hoki e ā rātou mahi, arā, ‘It will be a great thing for you all to stand together just now in a spirit of Christian co-operation’.[4]

I tētahi reta ki a Laurenson, ka whakamāramatia e Hīhita Atawhai ōna mānukanuka.  I hemo a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana i te 18 o Hepetema, ā, ka hurihuri ia, me haere ki te tangihanga, kāore rānei.  I te mutunga, kīhai ia i haere; ‘news of the war is too disturbing at present.’[5]

Nā te māharahara me te kumukumu, ka aro ngā tāngata ki ā rātou iwi, ki ngā hāhi hoki, kia manaakitia rātou, kia whakamanawatia hoki, ā, ahakoa ngā āwangawanga mō ngā take o tāwāhi, me haere tonu ngā mahi o te kāinga. I te Rāhoroi e whai ana, ka rewherī a Atawhai i te whakataetae pāhiketepōro Māōri i purei ai ngā kōhine o tāna Kura Rātapu.  He mea whakarite hoki he haerenga ki te maunga mō te wiki e whai ana, ā, i te hīkaka hoki aua taitamāhine kia tū tonu tā rātou haere, kia kaua e whakararua e ngā take o tērā atu taha o te ao.  Nō te tīmatanga o Tīhema i te tau 1939, kua maia anō a Hīhita Atawhai ki te hāereere; ka whakarite ia i tōna hararei raumati, me te toronga atu ki Waitangi mō te whakanui i te huri-rau-tau o Aotearoa.[6]

 

Ngā mahi tūao.

I tōmua ngā whakaaro o te iwi me pēhea ngā mahi pakanga e tautokona ai, ā, tere rawa ngā rōpū tūao ki te tahuri ki te kimi tāngata. Nā te tomo ki roto i ēnei momo rōpū i āhei ai ngā taitamāhine hīkaka te uru ki roto i ngā mahi pakanga.  Nā konei te ngākau whakaihiihi, te tūtika, me te haepapa mō rātou, pērā me ngā taitama e hōia ana.  I roto i ngā wiki tīmatanga e rua o te pakanga, ka tonoa kē atu ētahi o ngā kōhine o tā Hīhita Atawhai kia whakaaetia rātou hei waranatia mō te Rīpeka Whero.[7]

Ki te whakaaro o ngā tini rōpū tūao, nā ngā hononga ā-iwi o Hīhita Atawhai, me tōna āheitanga ā-whakahaere, hei tino taonga ia mō ō rātou ake rōpū.  I huritao ia ki te uru ki roto i te Rīpeka Whero, ki te VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment) rānei.  Ka tū anō tēnei rōpū nēhi i haere ki tāwāhi tiaki ai i ngā hōia i te Pakenga Tuatahi.  I te mutunga o Hepetema, kua tae kē ia ki tētahi kauhau pāronga o te Rīpeka Whero, ā, e rua ngā rōpū kē e tarai ana ki te whakawai i a ia kia hono i ā rātou.  I te mutunga, ka anga ia ki te mahi mō te RSA (Returned Services Association).[8] 

He ngāwari kē kia nui rawa ngā rōpū me ngā take e tautokona ana e te tangata.  Ka āta whakatūpatoria a Hīhita Atawhai e Laurenson, nāna i tuhi: ‘You will find all sorts of suggestions being made to you about what you should do with this war situation…Watch that you do not get swung into too much.’[9]  E whakakitea ana ki taua reta, he tūao ngā momo mahi hei tautoko i ngā take pakanga, tua atu i ērā atu mahi o te tangata, ahakoa mahi whai-utu, ahakoa mahi kāinga rānei.  I waiho mō tēnā tangata mō tēnā tangata hei whakarite i ēnei mahi katoa.  Ka whakamahara hoki a Laurenson i a Atawhai, kia tūpato kei whakararua tāna tino mahi e ngā pīroiroi kē.[10]  Engari, ka tukuna a Hīhita Atawhai e te Hāhi hei whakarite i tāna taha hāhi me āna mahi e tautoko ana i ngā take pakanga.

 

He whakarato kai

He mahi whakahirahira te kai nō te wā pakanga, arā, te whakatipu kai me te tohatoha ki te iwi.  Ahakoa ka mea mai a Hīhita Atawhai, ehara ia i te tautōhito ki te whakatipu kai, i tōna noho ki tōna whare ki Tāheke i Hokianga i Hepetema 1943, ka whakatōngia e ia he ‘rows of potatoes, onions and all sorts of vegetables.’[11]

Ehara i te mea ka mahi te tangata i tāna māra hei whāngai i a ia anake; ka tohatohaina ngā kai ki ngā hoa e noho tata ana.  I Hānuere 1941, ka homai he pouaka pītiti ki a Hīhita Atawhai; ka whakapounamutia e ia (ā, kāore e kore ka hoatu ētahi ki tāngata kē).[12] Ā, i a ia i Hokianga, ka tukuna atu e Sister Atawahi mā te poutāpeta he rīwai, he kāpeti, me ngā pī i roto i te pēke-huka ki ōna hoa i Taranaki mō te Kirihimete.[13] Ahakoa te whakaraihana kai, me whāngai ngā tāngata i toro mai ki te kāinga. I whakapāha a Hīhita Atawhai mō te poto o tētahi reta, nā tōna rūhā i āna mahi i taua rā, i te tapahi wāhie, i te horoi me te haeana kākahu, me te tunu kai hoki mō ngā kaimahi tuarua i tae mai ki te whakatika i te hiko o te whare.[14]

I ētahi wā, ka hiakai hoki ētahi o ngā whānau i toro ai a Hīhita Atawhai i te kore kai, ā, ka rapua e ia he tikanga hei whakatika i taua mate. Hei tauira, ka inoi atu ia ki te hāhi kia whakaaetia kia whakapaua tētahi wāhanga o tāna pūtea kia hokona he kai mō ngā tamariki o tāna Kura Rātapu.  Ka pīrangi ia ki te manaaki i a rātou, i te mea ‘some of these children come from poor homes.’[15]  I tētahi reta, ka tohua e ia tētahi whānau, tokoiwa ngā tamariki, ā, i te hōhipera te pāpā e pāngia ana e te mate kohi.  I runga i te Family Allowances Act (1926), mehemea i raro ngā moni a te whānau pohara i te £4 i te wiki, ā, tokorua, neke atu rānei, ngā tamariki i raro i te 15 tau, ka riro i te māmā he pūtea āwhina.[16] Engari, ka mea a Hīhita Atawhai ‘that just pays for their Kai and [the mother] has nothing to pay for clothes.’ Me haere rauna ia ‘from one place to another milking to earn something to clothe her little ones.’[17] Nā te pakanga i neke ai ētahi kaimahi ki wāhi kē mahi ai, engari tērā hoki ētahi kaimahi e neke haere tonu ana ki te rapu mahi i ngā kaupeka o te tau hei whāngai i ō rātou whānau.

 

Ngā raruraru motokā

Nā te raihana penehīni o te wā pakanga i whakararua ai te haere mā runga motukā.  I mua i te pakanga, he wero ngā rori kirikiri o ngā takiwā taiwhenua, me te pāmamao mai i tētahi kāinga ki tētahi kāinga, engari, ka marihi kē te motukā hei tino taonga i te whakaraihanatanga penehīni.  I whakawhiwhia e te Hāhi Weteriana he motukā ki a Hīhita Atawhai kia toroa ngā kāinga mokemoke me ngā whakaminenga hāhi o tōna rohe.  Nā te whakaaro ka whakatōhenehenetia e te hoariri ngā tīma mai i tāwāhi, i whakaturetia ai te raihana penehīni i te tīmatanga o te pakanga kia kore e pau rawa.  I te tau 1940, e 8-12 kārani anake i te marama (i runga i te nui o te motukā) e whakaaetia ana mō te tangata noa.[18] I Āperira o taua tau, ka tuhi a Hīhita Atawhai ki a Laurenson mō te pā mai o te raihanatanga ki āna mahi:

 ‘The car (engine) is running well, but am using a lot of benzine because of the stops I make when visiting. Visiting is I find a most important part of the job here,… The roads here are cruel. I do feel sorry for the car and therefore rarely travel more than 25 [mph] .’[19]

I ngā Rātapu, ka haere a Hīhita Atawhai mai i Rāwene ki Ōmanaia mō ngā karakia i te 10 karaka, kātahi ka haere atu ki Waimā mō ngā karakia i te hāpāhi i te tahi karaka, ka hoki ai ki Rāwene mō ngā karakia o te ahiahi-pō. Ka āhua 32km te roa o te haerenga katoa.[20]

E āhua porehu ana tētahi rīpoata a Hīhita Atawhai ki a Laurenson e mea ana, i te whiwhi ia ki te raihana penehīni o te ‘30 gallons…and extra if I wish.’ Engari, ki tōna whakaaro, kāore e pūmau ana, nā te mea, ‘Mr Wilson our fuel controller is leaving next month unfortunately – I suppose my allowance will be cut down.’[21]

Ehara i te mea ko te penehīni anake te mea ongeonge.  Nā te pakanga ki te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa, ka whakatōhenehenetia ētahi atu taonga, ā, ka tino hiahiatia te rapa mō ngā taea.[22] I Hune 1942, ka tuhi a Hīhita Atawhai ki a Laurenson mō ōna ‘tyre troubles’.  Ka inoi a Laurenson ki te Minister of Supply mō ētahi taea (me ngā ngongo o roto), engari ka tuhi ia kia Atawhai, kāore ōna ngākau rorotu, nā te mea kua tuhi kē te Hāhi ki taua Ministry, ā, kua whakautua, ehara ngā mahi a ngā hīhita i te whakahirahira (essential).  Nā konei, ka kī ia,  ‘for the time being we shall have to work simply on the equipment we have at the moment and make it go as far as possible.’[23] Ko tāna kupu tohutohu ki a Hīhita Atawhai ‘[to keep] the running [of the car] to the merest essential work so that there will be no danger of your being left stranded in an emergency.’[24]

Nā ngā here raihana, ka whakarerekētia e te Hāhi ngā rohe o ngā hīhita, ā, ka neke a Hīhita Atawhai ki Kaikohe, e tata ana ki tōna whānau.[25]  I whakatau hoki ia kia rāhuitia te whakamahi i tōna motukā mō ngā Rātapu me ngā Hui Wāhine, ā, ka tahuri ia ki te hapori hei whakatika i ōna raruraru taea.  Nā ngā here o te pakanga i puta mai ai he mahi rauhanga kē. I mea mai ia, ‘my cousin’s husband fixed my old tyres up (even the ones I discarded) that my car is set for a few more months’.[26]  I waiho ētahi tāngata kia tu noa ana ō rātou motokā, arā, kia kaua e whakamahia mō te roanga o te pakanga.  Nā konei, ka whakaae te kura māhita o Ngāwhā kia hokona atu ki a Hīhita Atawhai ngā taea o tōna Hillman tawhito kāore e taraiwatia ana i taua wā.[27]

 

Ka mutu āna mahi hīhita

I te 8 o Tīhema 1944, ka mārena a Hīhita Atawhai rāua ko George N. George (Hōri Hōri) i Waiomio, ko tāna kaka he ‘navy blue ensemble with cream and navy accessories’. Ko Rev. Makarae Tauroa te minita o te mārenatanga, he mea whakataki ki te reo Māori. E ai ki te Northern Advocate, neke atu i te 100 ngā hoa me ngā whanaunga i tae mai.  Ka whakamihia hoki ngā mahi a Atawhai, arā, ko tāna ‘splendid service rendered to the church and the Māori people’.[28]  I mua i te mārenatanga, ka rīhaina a Hīhita Atawhai i runga i te tikanga a te Hāhi o taua wā kia kaua ngā wāhine mārena e mahi tonu hei hīhita.  Nā te tikanga nei i ngaro kē ai he kaimahi pai rawa atu i te Hāhi.  Engari, ko te tikanga hoki, ka noho tonu ia i roto i ngā mahi a te Hāhi, ā, i kaha uru ia ki roto i ngā mahi o tōna pāriha ki Waikare.

Nāwai rā, ka puta kē ngā whakaaro o te Hāhi mō ngā mahi ā-utu a ngā wāhine mārena, ā, ka whiwhi mahi ia i roto i te Hāhi Weteriana mai i 1960 ki 1967.  Nō te whakarerekētanga o ngā ture o te Hāhi, ka whakatūria anō ia hei hīhita, he mea whakawahi i te tau 1968, ā, e whā ngā tau o tēnei mahi āna ki Pēwhairangi.[29]  I te whakawhiwhinga o te tohu Queen’s Service Medal mō āna mahi ā-hapori i te tau 1980, ka whakamōhiotia tōna takiwā roa e tautoko ana i te iwi Māori.[30]  Me kore ake ngā reta a tēnei wahine Māori e noho ana i roto i te whare pūranga o te Hāhi Weteriana hei whakakite i te taha rauhanga o ngā iwi Māori kia ora tonu rātou i te wā pakanga.

 

Whakaahua: ‘Home Mission Report and Financial Statement for the year 1931’, Methodist Church of New Zealand Archives.

 

 

[1] Wesley Chambers, Not self – but others: the story of the New Zealand Methodist Deaconess Order, Auckland: Wesley Historical Society New Zealand, 1987, wh.124.

[2] ‘Māori Woman Becomes Deaconess,’ The Star (Christchurch), 16 Tīhema 1930, wh.10.

[3] Chambers, Not self- but others, wh.124.

[4] Reta ki a Sister Atawhai, nā G.I. Laurenson, 6 Hepetema 1969, Home and Maori Mission Personal Correspondence Files – Wilcox, Atawhai 1939-1948, D19, Methodist Church of New Zealand Archives (arā, Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA).

[5] Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, 20 September 1939,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, 20 Hepetema 1939 me tētahi Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, kāore he rā,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[9] Reta ki a Sister Atawhai, nā G.I. Laurenson, 26 Hepetema 1939,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, 18 Hepetema 1940,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[12] Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, 3 Hānuere 1941,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[13] Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, 18 Tīhema 1940,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[14] Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, 4 Mei 1942,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[15] Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, 3 Āperira 1940,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[16] Melanie Nolan, Breadwinning: New Zealand Women and the State (Christchurch, Canterbury University Press, 2000), wh.137.

[17] Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, 3 Āperira 1940,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[18] ‘The Second World War at Home – Challenges’, NZHistory - New Zealand History online, he mea tītiro i te 15 Hūrae 2021, http://nzhistory.govt.nz/war/second-world-war-at-home/challenges, wh.2.

[19] Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, 22 Āperira 1940,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[20] Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, 3 Āperira 1940,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[21] Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, 5 Hepetema 1940,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[22] ‘The Second World War at Home – Challenges’, NZHistory - New Zealand History online, he mea tītiro i te 15 Hūrae 2021, http://nzhistory.govt.nz/war/second-world-war-at-home/challenges, wh.3.

[23] Reta ki a Sister Atawhai, nā G.I. Laurenson, 10 Hune 1942,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Reta ki a Sister Atawhai, nā G.I. Laurenson, 3 Hūrae 1942,  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[26] Reta ki a G.I. Laurenson, nā Sister Atawhai, kāore he rā (mai i Āperira ki Hune 1942),  Home and Maori Mission – Wilcox, MCNZA.

[27] Ibid.

[28] ‘Weddings, George – Wilcox,’ Northern Advocate, 22 Tīhema 1944, wh.4 .

[29] Chambers, Not self – but others, wh.124.

[30] Supplement to the New Zealand Gazette of Thursday, 26 June 1980, No.70, Wellington, wh.1909.

Whakapā Mai