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Ngā Tamariki Heritage

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Maori Home Front Blog Avatar
Erica Newman
03 Hakihea, 2021

E rangona ana te aroha o te hau kāinga o te Pakanga Tuarua i te whakatūranga o te kaupapa “Heritage”, i mahi aroha ai te hapori ki te tautoko i ngā tamariki a ngā mātua kua hemo i a rātou e hōia ana.  Ehara tēnei i te kōrero mō te iwi Māori anake.  I atawhai tuatahitia ngā tamariki Pākehā, engari, tahuri rawa te rōpū nei ki te āwhina i ngā tamariki Māori.

I te tau 1941, i a Dr Mazengarb rāua ko Mr Luxford e hāereere ana i te one ki Paraparaumu, ka kōrero rāua mō te ope o Ahitereiria, ko “Legacy Australia” te ingoa; he rōpū tēnei e tautoko ana i ngā tamariki o taua whenua kua panitia i te wā pakanga.  Ko te kākano tēnei i tipu ake ai te kaupapa “Heritage” mō tēnei whenua, ā, ka tahuri ake a Mazengarb rāua ko Luxford ki te kimi i ngā kaiāwhina hei mema, hei kaituku pūtea, ki te whakanui hoki i tō rāua mahi ki roto i te Karapu Rotary o Pōneke.  I te tīmatanga, ka whakatūria he Kaunihere ā-Motu,

with the Governor-General, Sir Cyrill Newall, as patron, Mr Justice Smith as president, and the Prime Minister, Mr P. Fraser, the heads of the three fighting services and the president of the New Zealand Returned Services Association as vice-presidents. The names of the children who had become orphans as a result of enemy action were obtained from the Government, and the mother or other guardian of each child was communicated with and asked if she would receive members of the Visiting Committee. After her acquiescence was obtained information was sought concerning the age, denomination, character, and interests of the family, and a sponsor was selected whose duty it was to get in touch with the child. If the contact was mutually satisfactory the sponsor undertook the duty of watching the general interests of the boys.[1]

 E kī ana hei “matua whāngai” a Heritage ki ngā tamariki i mate ai ō rātou mātua i te wā pakanga;[2] ahakoa i te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua te nuinga o āna mahi, kua ora tonu te rōpū nei tae noa ki nāianei. [3]  Hei whakanui i te kaupapa Heritage, ka whakamārama a Mazengarb:

The object of “Heritage” is to provide “sponsors” who, without taking him from his home or adopting him in the full sense, will act as a guardian to a boy who has lost his father in the war, supplying the guidance and assistance which, normally, it requires more than one parent to give. The idea seems simple, but actually it required immense tactfulness and sagacity to allocate the right boy to the right sponsor; when that is done, the boy’s benefit is assured.[4]

I te tīmatanga, ko ngā tamariki tāne o ngā hōia kua mate te arotahinga o te rōpū, arā, kia tū he tāne hei āhua mātua mō ngā tama, kia tipi ake ai rātou hei pakeke whaitake.  I taua wā, kīhai ngā tamāhine i whakaurua ki roto i te Heritage, nā te whakaaro ka tautokona katoatia ngā kōhine e ō rātou whaea tae atu ki te pakeketanga.  Nā reira, mā ngā tama ake tēnei kaupapa.  I te hui tuatahi o te kaunihera, kīhai i taea e te tumuaki tuarua, e te Pirimia Peter Fraser, te tae mai, engari ka tuku reta ia, e tohu ana ki te kore-tautoko i ngā kōhine, arā, i ngā tamāhine a ngā hōia kua mate.  I te hui, ka whakarāpopoto pēneitia te reta e Mazengarb:

At this inaugural meeting, a letter was received from the Prime Minister (the Right Honorable Peter Fraser) apologising for his absence as he was leaving that day by air for a conference in San Francisco, and wishing the new society well. He also drew attention in his letter to the fact that the organisation seemed to be formed for the helping of “boys” only. That was the position at the time. The promoters could be excused for overlooking the “girls” because their minds were more on the idea that the boys had lost a father, while the girls still had a mother. The letterhead of the society had been designed with the figure of a boy on it. It was not a difficult matter to adopt the Prime Minister’s suggestion and arrange for the artist to add the figure of a girl to the chosen emblem of Heritage.[5]

Ahakoa tēnei, i te hui-ā-tau o 1944, kua mārama nei, ko ngā tama tonu te tino arotahinga o ngā kōrero a te rōpū. I kīa: “already some practical preliminary steps have been taken by the appointment of sponsors to those boys who were at an age, and living in circumstances, where sponsorship was desirable.”[6] Engari, ahakoa he kaupapa tuarua ngā kōhine, i meatia hoki ka whakawhānuitia ā rātou mahi:

But sponsorship and special assistance of the sort so far given were not the sole, or even the principal methods of achieving the objective. If they were, Heritage would not be performing its duty to children in outlying districts, to the many daughters, to the Maori children, or even to those boys who, for the first time being, have uncles or other male relatives to supervise their doings.[7]

 I te whakatūranga o Heritage, ka whakatauria kia toru ngā momo mematanga, arā ko te kaitautoko [sponsor] o te tamaiti, ko ngā mema komiti, me ngā kamupene e tuku pūtea mai ana.  I whakaritea he tamaiti mō te kaitautoko; ko tāna mahi he whakawhanaunga ki te tamaiti i te wā i kura nei, i noho nei te tamaiti ki te kāinga.  Hei kaiārahi hoki te kaitautoko (e taunakitia e te komiti) ki te tama, i a ia e uru ana ki roto i tētahi mahi.  He mea tautāwhi ēnei mea katoa e te rōpū Heritage. [8]

He maha ngā komiti ki-raro o te rōpū, e pā ana ki te kuranga, ki te hauora ā-tinana, ki te hauora ā-niho, ki te kimi mahi hoki.  Ka uru ngā mema komiti ki roto i ēnei komiti ki-raro i runga i ō rātou pūkenga me ō rātou wheako.  Ka hiahiatia ana, ko tā rātou mahi he āwhina i ngā kaitautoko ki ā rātou pūkenga.  Hei taura, mehemea ka hiahiatia kia whakapaitia ngā niho, ka tuku te kōmiti hauora niho i ngā pārongo, me ngā moni kia mahia aua mahi.[9]

Kīhai ngā kamupene i uru tōtika ki roto i ēnei mahi; ko tā rātou he utu i te pūtea ā-tau kia ora ai te kaupapa Heritage.[10]  Nā reira, ka utua ngā mea e hiahiatia ana mō ia tamaiti, mō ia tamaiti.   Engari i whakapuaki te rōpū, ehara tā rātou mahi i te utu i ngā hiahia tihitihi katoa, engari he “help him develop to the full and to find adequate expression for his personality.”[11]  Mā te kaitautoko, mā ngā mema komiti, me ngā utu ā-tau a ngā kamupene:

It is desired that every opportunity should be afforded to intelligent boys under its care. If a boy is fitted for medicine, dentistry, or agriculture, the promoters of the movement of the movement contend that he should be sent to university or to an agricultural college, and provision made through the movement to ensure that he gets every chance to complete his studies.[12]

I ia tau, i ia tau, ka whiwhi te tamaiti Heritage ki te koha Kirihimete. I taua wā, he kupu ruarua noa mō ngā tamariki Māori.[13]  Ko te whakaaro, nā te tautoko a te whānau, kāore ō rātou hiahia ki te Heritage.  Heoi, i te tau 1944, i te tīmata ngā niupepa ki te kōrero mō te panoni o te kaupapa, e rīpoata ana (ahakoa he ruarua ngā kupu), i te titiro te Minita o te Taha Māori, o ngā Kura hoki, Mr. H.G.R. Mason, ki ngā tikanga e tautokona ai ngā tamariki o ngā hōia Māori kua mate.[14] I tāna kauhau kia piki ake te tautoko a te hapori, ka arotahi te Tumuaki o Heritage, a Mr Justice Smith, ki te iwi Māori, e kōrero ana mō ngā kāinga me te āhua o te noho:

One particular problem where assistance was often required was that though the mother and child might have adequate means, their housing conditions were poor. In several cases Heritage had been able to improve these conditions. In this respect the greatest problem might lie among the Maori children. A mother might live in appalling conditions, with no financial troubles, but with no idea of how to spend her money to the best advantage. Heritage was considering a special scheme for dealing with the children of deceased Maori servicemen.[15]

Kīhai ia i whakamārama he aha te “special scheme for dealing with the children of deceased Māori servicement”.  Kīhai te “kiimi” nei i matapakitia i roto i ngā pūrongo niupepa, i roto rānei i tā Mazengarb pukapuka, The Story of Heritage.[16] Koia, kāore kau te iwi Māori e kōrerotia ana i roto i taua pukapuka, ko te tikanga pea kia rite te pēheatanga o ngā tamariki katoa, ahakoa he Māori, he Pākehā, he aha rānei.  Engari, kei te mōhio tātou, kīhai i pēnei, nā te mea, ka puta mai he ātikara niupepa i kōrerotia ai he tautoko motuhake mō ngā tamariki Māori, me tētahi “Māori problem” hoki. 

I te tau 1945, ka hui mai te rōpū Heritage ki Tūranga, i whakapuaki ai te Kaiwhakawā Matua o te Kōti Whenua Māori, a Mr G P Shepherd, mō tana aronga ki ngā mahi a Heritage:

Not only as the grand-parent of a war orphan, but also as an officer of a department which would require the help and co-operation of such a movement in meeting the needs of Maori war orphans. He strongly urged that Heritage should be accepted as the avenue through which an acknowledgement of debt to the war fallen could be made effective.[17]

 Ka tae ki te tau 1948, ka kitea he pūrongo niupepa kē mō ngā mahi a Heritage hei āwhina i ngā tamariki Māori.  Hei tauira, ka rīpoata te Opotiki News  “the work among the Maori children of deceased servicemen is being placed on a more satisfactory footing”; te āhua nei, kātahi ka tīmata rātou ki te anga ki te iwi Māori.  I te kōrerotia ngā mahi a te Āpiha Māori Toko i te Ora, a Mr. Herewini, me āna rīpoata mō te noho o ngā tamariki Māori, me āna mahi whakahaere kia tautokona rātou i runga i te kaupapa Heritage.[18] I tāia hoki e te Opotiki News i taua tau he rīpoata ā-koata nō te rōpū i meatia ai “the problem of the Maori children”,[19] engari, kīhai i whakamāramatia e te rīpoata he aha te “raruraru” nei, ahakoa ka kōrerotia nuitia i te hui, ā “the Hamilton delegates spoke on the problem which particularly affects the Gisborne, Hamilton and Auckland branches.”[20] I te 7 o Āperira, ka rīpoata te Gisborne Herald  ko te pīrangi o te Tuamaki o taua wā, o Tā David Smith, mā ia peka o te Heritage e “take into account the financial support which it required during the next nine years. The peak year of Heritage’s work would be 1957. He stressed the necessity for the reorganisation of Heritage’s responsibilities in predominantly Maori districts.”[21] Ahakoa kāore āna kupu mō tētahi “raruraru”, kua mārama nei i te kōrero a Smith, kua whakaurua kētia ngā tamariki Māori ki roto i te kaupapa.  I te 9 o Noema 1948, ka kī te Gisborne Herald:

In Gisborne alone 69 families, consisting of 113 children, 85 of them Maori and 23 Pakeha, are on the register of the Heritage movement and we have been able to assist them in many ways. said Mr. F. S. Varnham, president of Heritage (Gisborne) Incorporated, speaking at yesterday’s weekly lunchean of the Gisborne Rotary Club.[22]

Ko te āhua nei, he rerekē tēnei ki te “raruraru” i kōrerotia i ngā tau o mua, ā, ko tētahi o ngā tino tutukitanga o Heritage ko “the efforts to promote good relations between pakahas and Maoris, and between employers and employees as well as community activities.” [23]

Ahakoa he āhua pōturi te whakaurunga o ngā tamariki Māori ki roto i te kaupapa Heritage, ahakoa ngā “raruraru”, ka kitea hei painga te kaupapa mō ngā tamaiti, ā, mō ō rātou whānau hoki.  Mehemea kāore he kaitautoko hei āwhina i te kuranga me te kimi mahi, mehemea kāore he pūtea mai i ngā komiti me ngā kamupene, kīhai pea ētahi tamariki Māori i kite i ngā momo kōwhiringa i whai painga ai rātou ko ngā whānau whānui.  Kīhai a Heritage i mutu i te mutunga o te tau; kei te ora kē tonu.  Kua kaha te aronga o tēnei kōrero ki ngā momo tautoko i whakaratohia e Heritage ki ngā tamariki a ngā hoia i mate i te Pākanga Tuarua.  Kāore e matapakitia ana ngā wero i puta mai i te tautoko a Heritage me te pānga mai ki ngā tamariki Māori. Hei tauira, mehemea ka pēhia te whaea e ngā raruraru ā-hapori, ā-moni rānei, mehemea ka mate te matua i muri i tōna hokinga mai ki Aotearoa, ka taea te kī, ko te take te wā i hōia ai te matua ki tāwāhi.  Kua whakahirahira hoki te āwhina me te tautoko a ngā karapu Rotary me te Returned Servicemen Association puta noa te oranga o Heritage.  I ngā tekautau e whai ana i te Pakanga Tuarua, ka haere tonu ngā mahi a Heritage mō ngā tamariki o ngā hoia kua mate kia kore i pīrangitia tonu tēnei momo āwhinatanga. 

Ki te mea ka mōhiohia he rongo mō ngā tamariki Māori o Heritage, tēnā koa whakapā mai: info@maorihomefront.nz

[He mea tango mai te pikitia i te uhi o tā Mazengarb pukapuka, The Story of Heritage (1962)

 

[1] “Heritage” Movement, Otago Daily Times, 16 Āperira 1943.

[2] Auckland Heritage Party, RSA Review, Pēpuere 1947. 

[3] “Blue Baby” Case, Ashburton Guardian, 19 Pēpuere 1948.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Mazengarb, O.C. (1962) The Story of Heritage: An epic of accomplishment through faith and an earnest of more to be done. A.H. & A.W. Reed Publishers: Wellington.

[6] Heritage Movement: First Annual Conference Nelson Evening Mail, 20 Hūrae 1944.

[7] Ibid

[8] “Blue Baby” Case, Ashburton Guardian, 19 Pēpuere 1948

[9] Heritage Movement: First Annual Conference Nelson Evening Mail, 20 Hūrae 1944.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Heritage Movement Good Progress Reported: Plans for conference in July [Wellington], Otago Daily Times, 13 Mei 1944.

[15] Heritage Aims Explained: President’s Address, Evening Post, 24 Hūrae 1944

[16] Mazengarb, The Story of Heritage.

[17] Heritage Plan Branch Initiated: Gisborne’s Interest – Debt Acknowledgment, Gisborne Herald, 22 Mei 1945.

[18] Heritage Movement, Opotiki News, 20 Āperira 1948.

[19] Heritage Movement: Quarterly Report, Opotiki News, 30 Hūrae 1948.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Widening Scope: Aid by Heritage Beneficiary Groups Servicemen’s Children, Gisborne Herald, 07 Āperira 1948.

[22] More Members Would Give Greater Scope To Heritage Work, Gisborne Herald, 9 Noema 1948.

[23] Whangarei Rotary Club, Northern Advocate, 31 Ākuhata 1949.

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