Please enable JS

Ngā Tautohetohe mō te Taha Māori o te Hāhi Mihinare

Screen Shot 2021 06 03 at 8.52.10 PM
Maori Home Front Blog Avatar
Lachy Paterson
04 Pipiri, 2021

 

He wāhi tikanga, he wāhi hapori te whare karakia, he wāhi wairua hoki, ā, he pai ake mō ngā tini Māori ngā whakaminenga e noho māori nei ā rātou tikanga, tō rātou reo, me tō rātou tuakiri.  Engari, mō te nuinga o te hītori o Niu Tīreni nei, kua rarua a Ngāi Māori e ngā hiahia o ngā Pākehā kia whakakotahitia ngā iwi e rua hei “iwi kotahi”, ahakoa i roto i te hapori me ngā tikanga āhua Pākehā.  Ko tēnei hoki te tūmanako me te whāinga o ngā tini kaihautū Pākehā o te Hāhi Mihinare, engari, he ariā i ātetetia kahatia e ētahi Māori o te Hāhi.

I haere tonu mai ngā tautohetohe nei i te tekau mā iwa o ngā rautau tae atu ki te tau 1994 i riro ai i te Hāhi Māori te mana whakahaere hei tētahi o ngā tikanga e toru (Māori, Pākehā me Pasifika) o te Hāhi Mihinare o Aotearoa.  Kua whakamāramatia rawetia te nonoke rahi nei e Hirini Kaa ki tāna pukapuka whai-paraihe, ko Te Hahi Mihinare te ingoa.[1]   Kei raro iho nei he matapaki mō ngā tautohetohe o ngā tau 1940, inarā, ngā tuhinga o roto o ngā tini niupepa o te Hāhi, i te wā i nonoi kahatia ai kia whakakotahitia te Hāhi, engari i te wā hoki i whakahī ai te ngākau Māori ki ngā mahi hautoa a te Ope Māori 28.

He ātārangi ngā tautohetohe nei nō ngā kaupapa e whakapā ana ki te ao Māori i waho i te Hāhi o taua wā, nō te hītori o mua hoki e aukati ana i te putanga mai o te kotahitanga me te mahi-tahi o ngā iwi e rua.  E kitea ana i taua wā, i te uru haere te iwi Māori ki roto i te ao hurihuri, i te heke rātou ki ngā tāone noho ai, ā, i te rahi haere te whakamahi i te reo Pākehā.  I wānangahia ngā kaupapa nei e ngā upoko Māori, Pākehā hoki, o te Hāhi: ka nui rānei ngā putanga kētanga o te ao hou o te Māori kia horo ngā taiepa i waenganui o ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā o te Hāhi, kia hui karakia tahi ai rātou?  Me tū motuhake tonu rānei te Hāhi Māori me āna minita kia tiakina ai ngā āhuatanga, me me ngā hiahia o ō rātou whakaminenga?

 

Te Pīhopa Tuatahi

I te tau 1814 te orokotaenga mai o ngā mihinare o te Hunga Tuku Mihinare (Church Missionary Society).  Kāore e kore, i whakaaro rātou, ka tino roa ā rātou mahi, kia mutu rawa tā rātou “mīhana”, ā, kia riro i te hunga kua whakatahuritia me ō rātou uri te mana hei whakahaere i tō rātou ake Hāhi, kia tiakina e rātou ō rātou ake pāriha, ā, kia tīmataria ā rātou ake mahi mihinare.  Ko tēnei te moemoeā o Henry Venn, o te hekeretari hōnore o te CMS mai i 1841 ki 1872.  I a ia e whakahaere ana i te rōpū nei ki Rānana, ka whakawhanake ia i tāna ariā mō ngā mīhana, e hāpai ana i te kaupapa o ngā “three selfs”, arā, kia whāngaia e ngā iwi taketake o te ao ō rātou ake Hāhi, ā, kia kāwanatia, kia whakatipua hoki ngā mahi e rātou anō.[2] 

I te taenga mai o George Augustus Selwyn i te tau 1842 hei pīhopa mō te koroni hou, ka tahuri ia ki te whiwhi ki te mana o ngā mahi katoa o te Hāhi o Ingarangi, tae atu ki ngā mīhana CMS anō hoki.  I tipi haere hoki ia ki Aotearoa, ki te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa hoki, hei mihinare.[3]  I te tau 1858, ka wehea te pīhopatanga o Selwyn kia whakatūria ētahi atu pīhopa, ā, ka waiho mā rātou ngā mahi mīhana e whakahaere i roto i ō rātou ake pīhopatanga.  ‘Although Maori Anglicans remained for the most part loyal to and were embraced by the Mihinare (missionary) Church, real ecclesial power and influence ultimately resided within the episcopal authorities present only in the settlers’ Anglican Church.’[4]  I haere tonu ngā Māori ki ō rātou ake whare karakia ā-mīhana, nā te mea i noho wehewehe ngā whakaminenga Māori, Pākehā hoki, ā, i karakia rātou ki ngā reo kē.[5]

 

Ngā Take mō te Whakakotahitanga

Ka tae ki te tau 1940, kua maha ngā karanga a te taha Pākehā o te Hāhi kia nui haere te hui tahi o te Māori me te Pākehā.  I pēnei anō hoki ngā whakaaro o ētahi minita Māori.  I te āta titiro ki ngā tuhituhinga o taua wā, ka kitea, ehara i te mea me whakakotahi ngā iwi e rua, kāore rānei, engari, āhea, ā, me pēhea. 

He tini ngā take tohetohe hei tautoko i te kaupapa whakakotahi nei.  Inarā, ka whakaaro ngā upoko o te Hāhi, mā te kura, mā te kaha haere ki te kōrero i te reo Pākehā, meāke mate ai te Hāhi Māori.  I Māehe 1939, ka hui ngā kaimahi o ngā mīhana Māori (Māori mai, Pākehā mai) o te Pīhopatanga o Pōneke, me ngā minita Pākehā, me te Pīhopa o Aotearoa.

It was felt by all present that, with the advancing education of Maori youth side by side with the Pakeha young people, and the increasing intermingling of Maori and Pakeha in every walk of life, the time must come when the two races will be drawn together in a closer Church fellowship.’ 

Engari, i whakaae hoki te huinga, ‘for many years to come there will be a large proportion of older people whose spiritual needs can only be provided in the Maori language and in a Maori environment.’ 

I tohea hoki kia kaua ngā rauemi e moumouhia. E ai ki te Huperitene o ngā Mīhana Māori o Pōneke, ki a W.G. Williams, ‘The Maoris are scattered through the Dominion, so that each Maori clergyman must of necessity have a huge geographical area to cover.’[6]  I uaua hoki te whakamānea i ngā minita hou hei rīwhi mō ngā mea kua mate, kua rītaia rānei, i roto i te nuinga o ngā pīhopatanga, inarā i ngā wāhi i waho i ngā rohe hohe o Ākarana me Waiapu.[7]   Ka pai ake kia whakakapia ēnei tūranga ki ngā tāngata e minita ana ki ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā.

Tērā hoki te whakapono, he pai noa iho te whakakotahitanga i ngā taha e rua o te Hāhi.  Ki ngā tini Pākehā, he tika te kaupapa o te kāwanatanga kia whakapākehātia te reo me ngā tikanga o ngā Māori, kia kake ake ai te motu katoa me te whakawhanaungatanga o ngā iwi e rua, hei painga hoki mō te iwi Māori.  Ki a rātou, mehemea ka tika tēnei mō te ao whānui, ka tika hoki mō te Hāhi.  I whakanohoia hoki tēnei i roto i te kaupapa ā-whakapono, arā, ko te whāinga mutunga o te Hāhi, ‘must be the uniting of Maori and Pakeha in one communion and fellowship.’[8]

Mehemea kāore anō te wā kia tae mai kia tino whakakotahitia ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā i roto i te Hāhi, me tīmata te hīkoi.  Hei tauira, ka whakatenatenatia kia haere mai ngā mema o ngā peka Māori o te Uniana Whaea o te Pīhopatanga o Ākarana (nō Te Taitokerau te nuinga) ki te huinga taurima ā-tau i te Whare Karakia Nui o Tāmaki-makaurau, ā, ka tonoa aua peka Māori e te Uniana Whaea o St. Saviours ki Kaitaia kia haere mai ki ētahi hui whakangahau kia hui tahi mai ngā iwi e rua.[9]  I te hui o te tau 1939, ka whakapai te minita Pākehā i tētahi kara hei ‘token of the bond of unity which binds Maori branches to the Pakeha branches of the parish’.[10]   

I te huinga o ngā kaimahi mīhana o Pōneke i Ōtaki i te tau 1941,

It was felt that the gradual merging of Maori and pakeha in one national entity, and one church organisation, would follow the ordinary course of events, and that nothing could be gained by passing resolutions on the question. It was, however, felt that where the opportunity offered occasional combined services, in which both Maori and pakeha clergy and Maori and pakeha worshippers united, would help to prepare the way for a more permanent uniting of the two races in the future.

I whakaritea he karakia whakakotahi ki Ōtaki i te Rātapu hei whakatinana i te kaupapa nei, ā, ‘a large congregation of both races filled the fine old Maori church to capacity for the morning service’.[11]

He maha ngā pūrongo o ngā niupepa o te Hāhi i whakanuitia ai ngā huinga i mine tahi mai ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā, engari, ka tautokona te kaupapa nei e ngā whakaminenga Pākehā katoa?   I whakaaro pea te Huperitene o ngā Mīhana Māori o te Pīhopatanga o Waikato, a Ākirīkona Oulds, kāore ngā Pākehā e pīrangi ana ki te noho tahi me ngā Māori i roto i ō rātou whare karakia, nā konei i inoi atu ai ia i te tau 1944 ‘that Maoris who attended European services should be made welcome and that no distinctions should be drawn.’[12]

  

Te Aweawe o te Ope Māori.

Kātahi te pakanga ka pānuitia, ka uru ngā tini taitama Māori ki roto i te tauā whawhai, ā, ka mahi ngā kaumātua, ngā kaitōrangapū, me ngā āpiha kimi hōia kia puta tonu mai ngā ika tauhou mō te Ope Māori 28. ‘Between 1941 and 1945 the Māori Battalion forged an outstanding reputation on the battlefields of Greece, Crete, North Africa and Italy.’[13]  I tino whakahī te Hāhi i te nuinga o ngā Māori Mihinare i roto i te ope.  I Tīhema 1942, ka whakapuakina e te Waiapu Church Gazette, ‘It is an interesting fact that of the four Maori Battalion Company Commanders, three are sons of our Maori Clergy, and the fourth is a son of a loyal Church family from the Waipawa district. All of them have passed through Te Aute College’, arā, ma te kāreti Hāhi mō ngā tama Māori.[14]  I te tau 1946, ka meatia e taua kura, ‘that 80 per cent. of the officers and decorated men of the Maori Battalion were Te Aute College Old Boys.’[15]   Ki ētahi, ka ara mai te tuakiri whakahī e tupu ana i roto i te ngākau Māori i ngā mahi o te ope nei.  I pēnei te Pīhopa o Aotearoa, a Frederick Bennett, i te tau 1946, e kī ana, ka mōhio ia, ‘the Maori had certain characteristics that could not be eliminated.  The Maori Battalion had cemented such feelings that would endure so long as the race existed.’[16]

  

Te Pukapuka Uiui

I ngā tau whakamutunga o te pakanga, ka mine mai ngā Hāhi Porotehana nunui hei Kaunihera ā-Motu o ngā Hāhi (National Council of Churches) ki te wānanga, ka taea e rātou te mahi tahi, te whakakotahi rānei. Ka whakatūria hoki he Komihana Māori kia tirohia te tū o ngā Māori i roto i ngā Hāhi.  I te huinga o Tīhema 1944, ka whakaaetia e ngā mema Māori, mā ngā putanga kētanga o te iwi Māori, ka tūpono mai ‘the ultimate end of unification of the two races’.  He kōrero whanokē tēnei, nā te mea, i ngā tau i muri, ka riro i te Hāhi Māori tōna ake mana whakahaere, engari, i whaiwhai pea aua mema i ngā whakapono noa o taua wā.  Heoi anō, i mārama hoki ki aua tāngata, ka tino roa te wā kia tūpono taua āhuatanga. I taua hui (he mea whakahaere e Pīhopa Bennett) ka kitea he tino ohonga kaha o te iwi Māori, i whakatinanatia i te wā pakanga e ‘the unique opportunity of racial self-expression and leadership presented by the Maori Battalion under its own Officers.’  Nā reira, me tū tonu te Hāhi Māori.

We recognise and welcome the need for continuing many distinct Maori congregations, worshipping in a characteristic Maori atmosphere, and wherever possible under a qualified Maori ministry.’[17] 

A, i te Hāhi Māori e ora ana, ‘Maori congregations should be organised with the fullest possible measure of independent Maori leadership.’[18] 

I tohaina hoki he pukapuka uiui ki ngā tino tāngata o ngā Hāhi, me te pātai, ‘In Church life do you favour the blending of the two races?’  Me tū tonu rānei ngā Hāhi Māori?  I whakapuakina e te minita o mua, e Rēweti Kōhere, ngā hiahia kē o ngā rangatahi me ngā pakeke o roto i te Hāhi, engari, pērā me ētahi atu, ka matea tonu ngā karakia Māori mō ngā kaumātua mō te wā roa.  Ko Tā Apirana Ngata pea te reimana nui rawa atu o te Hāhi o taua wā. Ki a ia, ka tītaha ngā pātai o te pukapuka uiui ‘in favour of hastening the Europeanisation of the Maori’.  Ka mea ia, kua tāmia e te Hāhi ngā tikanga Māori i ngā wā o mua.

I suspect that to-day they would be prepared to see the Maori surrender the last vestiges of individuality, and custom, the need of protection there is in his tribal system and comfort in his social customs in order that “differences between Maoris and pakeha may be eliminated” and “the blending of the two races in Church life” may be achieved.[19]

I haere tonu ngā tautohetohe.  I te tau ki muri ka tū he Hinota Māori o te Pīhopatanga o Pōneke.  Ka whiu atu a Rev. Pāora Temuera i te pātai, kua tae mai te wā kia whakatūria rānei he pīhopatanga Māori motuhake, kia whakakotahitia rānei te taha Māori me te taha Pākehā.  Ki a ia, he pai ake te mea tuarua, nā te mea, kīhai te nuinga o ngā Māori o āna whakaminenga i kōrero, i pānui rānei, i te reo Māori.  Kāore ērā atu minita o te hui i tautoko i a ia.  I kī mai a Pīhopa Bennett, he tākoha te reo Māori nā te Atua, ā, ka mea mai a Rev Hōhepa Taepa, i te pīrangi ngā rangatahi kia mau tonu te reo Māori.  Ka kī hoki a Bennett, kāore anō he hua kia kitea i te whakamātau ki te whakakotahi i ngā iwi e rua, ā, he mea whakawhara ‘even to suggest that the time has come for giving up our own characteristics as a race and merging completely with the pakeha.’[20]

 

He tāmi i te Hāhi Māori i te Nōta?

Kei te whakamōhio a Hirini Kaa, ko te Pīhopatanga o Ākarana (me ōna tini mema Māori ki te Taitokerau) te wāhanga i whakamātau ai ngā pirīhi Pākehā nunui ki te whakakotahi i ngā taha e rua o te Hāhi, ā ko te tino taniwha ko John Simpkin, te Pīhopa o Ākarana mai i Hune 1940.[21]   Engari, kua mārama nei, i te kawea hoki taua kaupapa i roto i ērā atu pīhopatanga, arā, i te mahi tahi ngā pirīhi Māori me ngā mea Pākehā kia minitatia ai ngā iwi e rua.  I Pōneke, i te tau 1939, ka whakapuaki te pīhopatanga, ka whakaritea he tikanga ‘for drawing some of the parochial [Pākehā] clergy into closer contact with the Maori side of the work.’[22]  I te whakaminitatanga o Rev Hōhepa Taepa i taua tau, ka tonoa ia kia mahi i raro i te maru o te minita Pākehā o Masterton, ‘while devoting the greater part of his time to work among the Maori people in the Wairarapa and Wellington districts’.[23]  I pēnei hoki a Rev. John Tamahori i raro i te minita Pākehā o Tauranga.[24]  Nā ēnei tikanga, ka whakamaurutia te kore minita, ā, hei whakaruruhau ngā minita Pākehā ki ngā minita Māori hou.

He mea pono, i tauākī noatia a Simpkin mō tōna hiahia ki te Hāhi kotahi, e kī ana i te tau 1941, ‘outwardly there is unity, but we want the unity of one family’.[25]  I te tau 1943, ka tuku ia i tēnei pātai ki tōna Hinota, ‘Is the Church to maintain the present policy of segregation?’ e whakahē ana i te ritenga i raihanatia ai ngā pirīhi Māori kia minita ki ngā Māori anake.  Nā konei, ka whakaitia te whanaketanga o ngā Māori i roto i te Hāhi.  I tautokona tāna take nei ki te Ope Māori, arā, ka whai take ‘the qualities which have enabled young Maori men to rise to such positions of responsibility as the command of a whole battalion in actual modern warfare’ hei hāpai i te Hāhi Kotahi.   I whakamahi hoki ia i te take o ngā rangatahi Māori kāore e mōhio ana ki te reo o ngā hui karakia Māori, me te tohetohe ā-whakapono. ‘How . . . can a Church which professes to be the universal fellowship, where there is neither Greek nor barbarian, be true to its origin if it fails to unite Maori and pakeha in its communion?[26] 

Engari, kāore he tino putanga kētanga mō ngā mema Māori o te pīhopatanga i taua wā; i minitatia tonu ngā whakaminenga Māori e ō rātou pirīhi Māori; i tae tonu ngā wāhine Māori ki ō rātou ake peka o te Uniana Whaea; ngā rangatahi ki ō rātou ake Karaehe Paipera; me ā rātou tamariki ki ō rātou ake Kura Rātapu.  Otirā, ka tahuri a Simpkin ki te whakangaro i ngā Poari Hāhi Māori i hui ai ngā minita Māori ki te whakarite i ngā mahi, ā, ki te kōrero mō ngā take e pā ana ki te Hāhi Māori.  Ka whakahau hoki ia kia mahi tahi ngā pāriha Māori me ngā mea Pākehā, arā ki te whakaaro o ētahi, kia whakahāwinitia ngā minita Māori i raro i ō rātou hoa Pākehā.[27] 

I pakū te raruraru nei i te Hui o ngā Poari Hāhi Māori o te Pīhopatanga o Waiapu i te tau 1948.  Tū ai tēnei hui i ia toru tau i ia toru tau, hei momo hinota Māori, ā, ka puta anō ngā nawe e pā ana ki te Hāhi Māori.  Hei tauira, ka tino āwangawanga te hui i te mana whāiti o te Pīhopa o Aotearoa, kāore e whakaaetia ana kia minita i ngā kāinga Māori, mehemea kāore he raihana mai i te pīhopa o te rohe.  Ko Ngata te tino tangata o taua hui, e whakamōhio ana i tōna ake wawata o ‘the two communities in the Church advancing side by side, but retaining freedom to deal with their own problems in the manner best suited to their own needs’.  I tahuri hoki ia ki te whakahē i ngā tikanga a Simpkin e mahia ana ki te Pīhopatanga o Ākarana, e kī ana he whakamātau tēnei ‘to smother the Maori Church in the North’, ā, i te kore-minita me te kore-whare-noho mō ngā tini Māori e heke atu ana ki Tāmaki-makaurau.[28]  He mea tautoko a Ngata e James Hēnare.  He reimana ia nō Te Taitokerau, ā, ko te rangatira o mua o te Ope Rua-Tekau-mā-Waru.  I pōwhiritia ia e Ngata mō tōna putanga mai ‘from behind the iron curtain’.[29]  Nō nā tata nei kua wehe a Rev. Pera Kena i te Pīhopatanga o Ākarana, ā, ka āta whakaatu hoki ia i ngā kino e whakararu ana i te Hāhi Māori ki te rohe o Simpkin.[30]

Tere rawa ati te whakahoki a te Pīhopatanga o Ākarana.  E ai ki a Percy Houghton, ki te Ākirīkona o Waitematā, ‘there is no attempt in the Diocese to smother the Maori church, and in the sense of a separate body there is no such thing as a Maori Church anymore than there is a pakeha Church.’ I te minita tonu ngā pirīhi Māori i ā rātou ake tāngata, engari, ‘by close association with his Pakeha colleague he gains experience in organisation and administration of his pastorate and the benefit of fellowship in service.’  Ka whakamārama a Houghton, nā tā Simpkin raihana i ngā pīrihi Māori ki te minita i ngā iwi e rua, ka āhei aua Māori ki te piki ake ki ngā tūranga nunui of te Hāhi, ā, ‘he will tolerate no sign of the colour bar which some would erect between Maori and Pakeha’.[31]  Ka puta pea te whakaaro ki ngā kaipānui o te niupepa, i te tāmia kētia ngā Māori o ērā atu pīhopatanga.

I uru hoki a Rev. Mangatitoki Cameron (Kamariera) ki roto i te whawhai.  I mua, ka mahi te tangata nei hei minita kaiāwhina i raro i tētahi pirīhi Pākehā, engari, kua whakatūria ia ināianei hei Pirīhi o Hokianga, o tētahi pāriha āhua Pākehā.  Ka whakahē ia i tō Ngata pīrangi kia tū tahi te Māori me te Pākehā i roto i te taha noa, engari, kia noho motuhake te Māori i roto i te taha karakia.   I tohea hoki e Cameron te take whakapono kia ngaki te Hāhi kia karakia tahi ngā iwi e rua, ā, nā te aukati i ngā pirīhi Māori ki ngā whakaminenga Māori anake, ‘produce[d] in them a very limited conception of the Catholicity of the Church of God.’[32]  Engari, kāore e tino mōhiotia ana, i ākina rānei a Cameron ki te tautoko i tōna Pīhopa?  Kua mārama nei, i hiahia ngā minita Māori o te Pīhopatanga o Ākarana ki ō rātou ake rōpu whakahaere. E rua ngā tau i muri i te rītaiatanga o Simpkin i te tau 1960, ka whakatūria anō ō rātou Poari Hāhi Māori.[33]

 

He Kupu Whakatepe

I ētahi wā, hei whakaata te Hāhi Mihinare ki ngā whanaketanga e puta mai ana ki te ao o waho.  I ngā tekautau 1930 me 1940, ka whakaponohia whānuitia, ahakoa ka roa te wā, ka whakakotahitia ngā iwi e rua, mā te mārenatanga, mā te hui tahi o ngā iwi e rua ki te mahi, ki te kura, ki te hākinakina hoki, nā reira, me pēnei hoki ki te whare-karakia.  I te noho tonu ngā pāriha Māori motuhake, nā te mea kīhai ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā i noho tahi, ā, i kōrero rātou i ngā reo kē.  Engari, nā te kore kōrero a te rangatahi Māori i te reo Māori, me te heke haere ki ngā tāone, ka whakakahangia te whakaaro, ka tika, ka pai kia karakia tahi ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā ā tōna wā.

Ehara i te mea he tangata kaikiri a Simpkin mā, e tohe ana kia “ōrite” te Māori me te Pākehā.  Engari, ka poto te ōritetanga nei i te haere tahi o ngā iwi e rua mā te huarahi kotahi, arā, he huarahi āhua Pākehā. E pērā ana tēnei ki te ao i waho i te Hāhi me noho pākehā te iwi Māori kia riro ai ngā hua o te ōritetanga.  I whakatenatena te Hāhi kia hui tahi ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā, ahakoa he pokepoke aua hui.  Ka whakamahia hoki te tohetohe ā-whakapono, nō te whānau kotahi ngā tāngata katoa, ā, kia rite te wā, me karakia tahi rātou.  I tautohetohe hoki a Simpkin, kia ōrite ngā minita Māori ki ngā mea Pākehā i roto i ngā rārangi o te Hāhi o Ingarangi, ā, kia kaua ngā pirīhi Māori e aukatitia kia mahi anake i te taha o tō rātou ake iwi.

Kīhai te nuinga o ngā Māori i kaingākau ki te wawata Pākehā o te kotahitanga.  Tuatahi, kei roto i tā Ngata tuhi whakahoki ki te pukapuka uiui o te Hāhi, ‘the Maori cannot easily forget the loss of their lands or relax vigilance against further inroads into the remnant of lands and culture’.  Kāore e ārikarika ngā taonga me whakarere e ngā Māori ki te uru ki roto i te ao Pākehā.  Ka pēnei hoki te Hāhi, inarā mehemea ‘the practical interpretation of the Christian order by the pakeha is to be the form and standard by which the Christianisation of the Maori is to be judged’?[34]  

He mea tika, i te memeha haere te reo Māori i waenganui o te rua tekau o ngā rautau, engari e rerekē ana i tēnā kāinga, i tēna kāinga.  I te whiwhi ngā rangatahi Māori ki te mātauranga o ngā kura Pākehā, ā, i te mahue te reo Māori i ētahi o rātou, engari, ehara i te mea ka pīrangi rātou ki te whakarere i tō rātou hāhi, i ō rātou whare-karakia i waia nei rātou, i karakia ai rātou, i āhei ai rātou ki te tū hei Māori i waenga i ō rātou whanaunga.   Ehara te matatau i te reo te take anake o tō rātou tuakiri Māori.

I mōhio pū hoki ngā Māori, ahakoa he ōrite ngā iwi e rua i raro i te ture, kāore e taea te kī kāore he kaikiri, kāore he “colour bar”.  He nui te kūare me te kore-aroha ki te Māori i waho i te Hāhi — he rerekē a roto?  I te tekautau 1940, hāunga te Pīhopa o Aotearoa, ka mau ngā tūranga nunui katoa o te Hāhi i ngā tāngata Pākehā.

I te tekautau 1970, kua mārama nei, kāore anō te kotahitanga ā-iwi i poropititia i mua kia puta mai.  I te whakahē ngā Māori i te kaupapa whakapākehā (ko “assimilation” i mua, ko “integration” i muri) i tāmia ai te iwi Māori mai i te tīmatatanga o te kāwanatanga Pākehā.  He roa te wā i tū a Frederick Bennett hei pīhopa kaiāwhina ki te Pīhopa o Waiapu, engari i te tau 1976 ko tōna pīhopatanga ‘was inaugurated as a semi-autonomous body with representation in the General Synod for the first time’; he whakaaturanga tēnei i te āhua kē o taua wā.  I te tau 1992, ka puta kē anō te kāwanatanga o te Hāhi, kia hangaia he tikanga e āhua tata ana ki te kaupapa o Venn, i riro ai i te Hāhi Māori te ōritetanga ki te taha Pākehā.[35]  Ahakoa kīhai pea ngā kawatau katoa o ngā tāngata katoa i ea,[36] he pai ake te tū o o te Hāhi Māori onāianei i te āhuatanga i poropititia i te tekautau 1940.

 

Whakaahua: “Maori Ministers in Conference Today”, Auckland Star, 2/8/1941: 8.

I Bishopscourt, Tāmaki-makaurau. E noho ana ki mua (mai i te taha mauī): Rev. W.N. Papapa (Minita ki te Ope Māori), Rev. M.P. Kapa, Rt.Rev. F.A. Bennett (Pīhopa o Aotearoa), Rt.Rev. W.J. Simpkin (Pīhopa o Auckland). Rev. E.E. Bamford. Kei muri: Rev. P. Tipene, Rev. H. Paraone, Rev. H. Harawira, Rev. P. Kena, Rev. M. Te Paa, Rev. M. Cameron, Rev. W. Matene, Rev. H.K. Pou, Rev. W. Maioha, Rev. W.N. Patuawa, Rev. E. Riiwhi.

 

 

[1] Hirini Kaa, Te Hāhi Mihinare: The Māori Anglican Church, (Wellington: Bridget Williams Books, 2020). Tirohia hoki, Jenny Plane Te Paa, “From ‘Civilizing’ to Colonizing to Respectfully Collaborating?”, Theology Today, 62 (2005): 67-73.

[2] Wilbert R. Shenk, “The Contribution of Henry Venn to Mission Thought”, Anvil, 2, 1 (1985): 34.

[3] Warren E. Limbrick. 'Selwyn, George Augustus', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, i orokoputa mai i te tau 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/1s5/selwyn-george-augustus (he mea titiro i te 24/5/2021).

[4] Te Paa, p. 67.

[5] He kōrero anō mō ngā mahi a ngā Mīhana Māori i roto i ngā pīhopatanga kei: “Ngā Mahi Mīhana a te Hāhi Mihinare”, https://www.maorihomefront.nz/mi/whanau-korero/mahi-mihana-a-te-hahi-mihinare/.

[6] Church Chronicle, 1/8/1939: 273.

[7] Tirohia “Ngā Mahi Mīhana”

[8] Church Chronicle, 1/11/1938: 156.

[9] Church Gazette, 1/12/1938: 18; 1/12/1939: 12; 1/12/1943: 21.       

[10] Church Gazette, 1/12/1939: 12.

[11] Church Chronicle, 1/5/1941: 345.

[12] Waiapu Church Gazette, 1/8/ 1944, p.12

[13] 28th Maori Battalion, https://www.28maoribattalion.org.nz/node/37557 (he mea titiro i te 3/6/2021).

[14] Waiapu Church Gazette, 1/12/1941: 3.

[15] Church and People, 2/9/1946: 13.

[16] Church and People, 1/8/1946: 13.

[17] Waiapu Church Gazette, 1/2/1945: 8.

[18] Church Gazette, 1/3/1945: 14.

[19] Waiapu Church Gazette, 1/3/1945: 8.

[20] Church and People, 1/8/1946: 13.

[21] Kaa, wh.85-86.

[22] Church Chronicle, 1/4/1939: 220.

[23] Church Chronicle, 1/12/1939: 345.

[24] Church Chronicle, 1/6/1939: 247.

[25] Church Gazette, 1/9/1941: 6.

[26] Waiapu Church Gazette, 1/11/1943: 3.

[27] Kaa, wh.86.

[28] Church and People, 1/5/1948: 2.

[29] Northern Advocate, 13/4/1948: 2.

[30] Church and People, 1/5/1948: 2.

[31] Church and People, 1/6/1948: 2.

[32] Church and People, 1/7/1948: 2.  I te tau 1971, ka tū a Cameron hei minita mō te Lynfield Community Church i Tāmaki-makaurau, mō ngā hāhi Porotehana katoa o taua rohe.  Tirohia: Lynfield Community: The First Twenty Five Years, 1967-1992. http://www.methodist.org.nz/files/docs/wesley%20historical/lynfield%2025.pdf (he mea titiro i te 29/5/2021).

[33] Kaa, wh.93.

[34] Waiapu Church Gazette, 1/3/1945: 8.

[35] Karen Webster & Christine Cheyne “Creating Treaty-based local governance in New Zealand: Māori and Pākehā views”, Kōtuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, 12, 2 (2017): 155. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1177083X.2017.1345766

(he mea titiro i te 29/5/2021).

[36] Hei tauira, tirohia: Te Paa, wh 72-73.

Whakapā Mai