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Te Hāhi Mōmona me te Iwi Māori i te Wā Pakanga

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Lachy Paterson
11 Paengawhāwhā, 2021

 

Pērā me ērā atu hāhi i ngangahau ai te iwi Māori i te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua, i tau iho ētahi wero ki te Hāhi o Ihu Karaiti o te Hunga Tapu, engari, ka tohe rātou kia haere tonu ā rātou mahi ā-hāhi ahakoa ngā āhuatanga hou o te wā pakanga.  Pērā anō hoki ki aua atu hāhi, ka noho, ka mahi hoki ngā mema Mōmona i roto i te mirumiru o tō rātou ake Hāhi; i waho te pakanga i te nuinga o te wā, engari, ka uruuru mai ki roto i ētahi wā.   Kāore he pouaka whakaata i aua wā, kāore he hoko taonga i te wīkene, engari he maha ngā momo mahi i roto i te Hāhi hei oreore i a rātou, hei whakangahau i a rātou, hei whakapau i ō rātou hāora wātea.  Tērā pea, he nui atu aua momo mahi i ō ērā atu hāhi.  Me kī hoki, pērā me ngā Hāhi Mihingare, Weteriana, Pikopō, Perehipitiana hoki, ka piri tonu te taha Māori o te Hāhi ki ngā āhuatanga o te mīhana i taua wā.  Engari, he rerekē te Hāhi Mōmona; he āhua Marikena te wairua o taua hāhi, ā, ko ngā mema Māori te nuinga o te “hunga tapu” o Aotearoa.  Arā, i te tatau nui o te tau 1945, e 6,551 ngā Mōmona Māori. Ahakoa e 6.63% anake rātou o ngā Māori katoa, e 84% rātou o te Hāhi Ihu Karaiti o te Hunga Tapu i Aotearoa.[1]

 I tukuna ngā tini mahi mā ngā mema i ngā tekautau 1930 me 1940, engari mā ngā wāhine ētahi, mā ngā tāne ētahi.  I haere ngā tamariki nonohi ki te Kura Rātapu, ā, whakahaeretia hoki he karaehe i te wiki e Te Paraimere (Primary Organization) mō ngā tamariki i raro i te 14 tau, i whakaakona ai ngā kaupapa o te Hāhi e pā ana ki te taha wairua, ki te matatika, ki te hauora, me te tākaro.  He mema hoki ngā rangatahi nō Te Miutara (Mutual Improvement Association, M.I.A. rānei), arā, i roto i ngā wāhanga tāne, wāhine rānei.  Ka kake ngā tama mai i te “Boy Scout” ki te “Cub” i te tau 15, ā, he “M-Men” rātou mai i te 17 ki te 23 tau; ko ngā ingoa ōrite o te taha kōhine, ko ngā “Beehive Girls” me ngā “Junior Girls” tae atu ki ngā “Gleaner Girls”. Ka tae ngā tāne me ngā wāhine ki te 23 tau, ka hui tahi rātou.  E ai ki te tikanga o te Hāhi, he mema ngā tāne pakeke katoa nō te hunga pirihi. Hui ai ngā tāne i ia wiki i ia wiki “to study important subjects in sacred or profane fields and to consider one another's welfare, as well as the needs of the Church”.   He mema ngā wāhine pakeke nō te Hui Atawhai (Relief Society); ko ā rātou mahi he ako i te whakapono, he tiaki i ngā tūroro me ngā rawakore, he whakahaere hoki i ngā “bazaars, excursions, social evenings, and a variety of other activities for the advancement of women”.  Tua atu i ēnei mahi, tērā ētahi tūranga hei whakahaere i ngā tini peka o te Hāhi, arā, he tumuaki me ngā kaiārahi tokorua, he hekeretari me te kaiāwhina, he hunga kaiako me ētahi kaiāwhina mō ia peka, mō ia peka. I haere hoki ētahi pakeke ki te Hui Whakapapa (Genealogical Class) “derived from the doctrine of the Church pertaining to the salvation for the dead”.[2]  I whakatenatenatia e ētahi peka ngā mahi ahurea.  Hei tauira, he koea nō ētahi peka; i Nūhaka ngā “Singing Mothers”; ā, i Heretaunga he tōwhā autangi (string quartet).[3]

 Tua atu i ngā mahi i roto i ngā peka, tērā ētahi atu hui i te maramataka o te Hāhi.  I ia tau, ka whakaritea e ngā peka katoa ā rātou Hui Pariha, e rua rā te roa.  Ka hui ngā tāngata o te peka, engari ka pānuitia hoki kia tae mai ngā mema o peka kē.  Hei tauira, i Mei 1940 ka tū te hui o te Peka Hauraki ki te marae i Manaia.  Ka āhua 200 te hunga i tae mai; “I te Haterei ka eke mai a Ngati Kahungunu, a Nopera me tona ope, nga Hunga Tapu o Mangere me Waikato”.[4]   I tū hoki he kanikani ki ēnei hui.  Mā ēnei hui ka whakamaneatia pea ngā tāngata hou, ā, ka whakakitea ngā mahi a te Hāhi.  I te hui ki Manaia, ehara te tāngata whenua o te marae i te Hāhi, engari, ka āwhina rātou i ngā kaiwhakahaere, ā, ka tae mai ngā tamariki o te Kura Māori o Manaia ki te pōwhiri i te whakaminenga, ki te haka, ki te waiata me te poi hoki.[5]    Ka whakahaeretia hoki e ngā peka he pāti mō te Kirihimete, te Rā Pāpā, me te Rā Māmā, ā, i ia tau, ka whakaturia e ngā Miutara o ngā peka he kanikani nui, ko te Green and Gold Ball. I aua kanikani hoki, ka karaunatia he “kuini”; he whakataetae tēnei i kohi moni ai ngā rōpū hei tautoko i tō rātou wahine, kōhine rānei, mahi moni ai mō te Hāhi, mō tētahi atu take rānei.

In the spacious and attractively decorated Recreation Hall, the Kaikohe M.I.A. held a successful Gold and Green Ball on October 25 [1940]. A capacity house was in attendance. A Fairyland-like charm was effectively fused into the decorations, adding immensely to the beauty of the occasion. Miss Eva Wihongi was the successful Queen candidate and was crowned by Mr. G. Fraser, manager of the Ford Co. The evening's takings was most satisfactory, the major portion of which was handed over to the Patriotic Fund.[6]

 Ko te Hui Tau te takunetanga nui o te tau, i mine mai ai ngā mema o ngā peka katoa ki tētahi wāhi mō ngā rā e whā.  He Māori te nuinga o ngā tāngata, ā, e kīa ana, ko te Hui Tau te tino rā o te maramataka Mōmona o taua wā mō rātou.  E 2,500 pea ngā tāngata i tae mai ki te Hui Tau o 1939.[7]   I whakauhia te Hunga Tapu e Te Puea Hērangi i Ngāruawāhia i ngā tau 1938 me 1939, i mua i te tīmatanga o te pakanga.[8]  I te tau 1940, i Nūhaka te tuatahi o ngā hui o te wā pakanga, he tino wāhi tēnei nō te Hāhi Mōmona.  He maha ngā mahi o te Komiti Marae kia reri ai te marae mō te hui, arā “a beautification programme including new concrete paths, new tar-sealed tennis court, planting of shrubs and flowers, and general clean-up and paint-up campaign.”[9]  Ahakoa te pakanga, tokomaha ngā manuhiri.  E toru ngā taraka i rīhitia hei kawe mai i a Ngāpuhi, ā, ka whakaritea e te Rerewei kia whakamāmātia te utu o ngā tikiti tereina ki reira.[10]  I tae mai ngā tāngata mō ngā kaupapa whakapono, engari he wā hoki mō te huihui, mō te kapa haka, mō te whakahoahoa, mō te ngahau.  Ka āhei hoki ngā Mōmona ki te tūtaki ki ngā tāngata o karakia kē.  I tuhi pēnei a Hirini T. Heremaia o te Taitokerau.

 He mihi au ki te marae Rakaipaka.  Kia ora koe te pai o te marae, te ma, te nui o te kai, te pai o nga tepu kai, te pai o te reo mai o nga tuari, te wera o te kai, te papai o nga kai, te kotahi o te whakaaro ahakoa he Mihinare ke etahi, he Ringatu ke etahi, he Ratana ke etahi, he Momona hoki etahi ara he Hunga Tapu. [11]

Ko Matthew Cowley (ko Matiu Kauri ki ētahi) te tumuaki o te Mīhana Mōmona i Tāmaki-makaurau.  I te tau 1914 tāna oroko taenga mai i Amerika ki Aotearoa, ā, e rima ōna tau e mihinare ana.  I taua wā, ka matatau ia ki te reo Māori, ā, i mahi tahi rātou ko  Wī Duncan ko Stuart Meha ki te whakaputa i te whakamāoritanga hou o te Pukapuka o Momona.  I te tau 1938 ka hoki mai ia hei Tumuaki o te Mīhana, ā, e ai ki a Peter Lineham, e arohaina ponotia ana a Cowley e ngā Mōmona Māori.[12]  I noho ia ki Aotearoa tae noa ki te taenga mai o A. Reed Halverson, o tōna rīwhi i Hūrae, 1945.[13]  Ko tētahi o ā Cowley mahi he whakahaere i ngā ētita o Te Karere.  He niupepa pakupaku tēnei i puta mai i ia marama, i ia marama; i te tekautau 1940, he reo Pākehā te nuinga o ngā tuhinga, engari, ka tāia hoki he wāhanga hira i roto i te reo Māori.[14]  I whakamahia te pepa nei hei ako i ngā matatika me te whakapono o te Hāhi Mōmona ka tahi, ka rua hei whakaatu i ngā āhuatanga o te ao hurihuri ki te iwi Māori, hei whakakite hoki, ehara te Hāhi i te karakia whano kē.   E whakamaneatia ana a Ngāi Māori ki taua whakapono nā te mea, ahakoa kua uru rātou ki roto i te karakia o te ao whānui e anga ana ki te ao hou, ka taea tonu te tuakiri Māori te pupuri.  Kāore i ārikarika hoki ngā tini ngahau mō te whānau.  E ai ki Te Karere, ko tētahi akoranga o te Hāhi, ehara te kanohi pōuri me te harirū whakapono i te tikiti ki te Runga Rawa.[15]

 Ahakoa ngā tini mahi i roto i te mirumiru o te Hāhi, he maha ngā raruraru o te pakanga e whakapā ana i ngā mema.  Tuatahi, ko te urunga o ngā tāne ki roto i te Ope Tauā, me te wehenga ki tāwāhi.

 In spite of the numerous enlistments among the younger men which have depleted the ranks of some of the branches, the Saints remaining are carrying on and are praying for the safe return of their boys who are fighting valiantly in defense of our country.[16]

 Nō te tīmatanga o te pakanga, ka raihanatia te penehīni, i uaua haere ai te ahu atu ki ngā kāinga ki te toro i ngā mema, ki te whakatahuri i ngā tāngata hou ki te karakia Mōmona, me te haere ki ō rātou hui, pērā me ngā hui pariha.[17]  Heoi, i tohe tonu rātou.[18]Despite the difficulties with fuel for the cars, the intention to go to these church meetings has not diminished.”[19]  E kitea ana, ka tino hiahiatia te penehīni.  I tētahi hui ki Te Taitokerau, “An interesting diversion was the work of the Pipiwai Platoon, Home Guard, under the command of Lt Hetaraka Anaru. Visitors had no fear of any losses of petrol.”[20]  I te tau 1943, ka miramira Te Karere, mehemea kua whiwhia he penehīni mō ngā take hāhi, kia kaua e whakapaua mō ngā take kē; kei hāmenetia te tangata i raro i ngā ritenga o ngā Oil Fuel Regulations. Mehemea ka pēneitia, ka whiua hoki e te Hāhi.[21]

 He tino raruraru nō te whakahaere i te Mīhana i te wehenga o ngā mihinare Marikena i te mutunga o te tau 1940.  Kāore ō rātou whāmere kia tiakina, kāore ā rātou mahi kē, nā reira, i āhei ngā rangatahi nei ki te whakahaere i te nuinga o ngā mahi o ngā peka i whakanohoia ai rātou.  Nā Te Karere i pānui ki ngā mema Māori ka hoki wawe aua “kaumātua” ki Amerika, me te rongo:

 As long as conditions in the world continue as at present there will be no more missionaries sent to New Zealand from the United States. This will mean that the burden of all mission and Church activities in New Zealand will soon develop upon the local Priesthood and that all district, branch, as well as proselyting activities, will be under local control…. In too many of the districts and branches of the mission the local office-holders and members of the Priesthood have shifted responsibility to the Zion Elders.[22] 

 Ko Matthew Cowley rāua ko tōna hoa rangatira, ko Eva, ngā mihinare Marikena anake e toe ana ki Aotearoa nei.

 Pērā me te niupepa o te Mīhana Perehipitiriana,[23] ka meatia e Te Karere, kua puta mai te pakanga i te paheke o ngā whenua Karaitiana me te kino o ngā ritenga a Hītara, nā reira, ka tautoko te Hāhi i ngā mahi pakanga.

 “Although it is a sin to force war upon anyone, President Joseph F. Smith once said that it is both righteous and just to defend our lives, liberties, and homes with the last drop of our blood. It was also his belief that the Lord would justify us in such.”[24]

 I Āperira 1940, ka tāia te uhi o te pepa ki te whakaahua o H.M.S. Achilles, o te manuao o Aotearoa, me te kōrero poto mō tāna whawhai i te taha o ētahi atu manuao, i whakatotohutia ai te Graf Spee.  I tapainga hoki e te pepa ko Piritana te “Whenua Whaea”; he paku hunuku tēnei i te āhua o te pepa e whakahaeretia ana e ngā mihinare Marikena.[25]  I Noema, ka karakia tahi ngā mema Mōmona me ērā atu Hāhi i te tono a te Kīngi kia karakia te Emepaea.

 I te karanga a to tatou kingi ko te waru o nga ra me inoi katoa nga hahi katoa o te ao kia arohaina hoki tatou e te Atua kia whakamutua tenei whawhai kia tau iho he rangimarie ki te whenua.[26]

 I kaha anga hoki ngā Māori Mōmona ki te kohi moni mō ngā kaupapa e tautoko ana i ngā mahi pakanga.  E waia ana aua mema ki te mahi moni mō te Hāhi, ā, ka whakamahia aua ritenga mō te taha pakanga, āpiti atu ki ā rātou urunga ki roto i ērā atu kaupapa mahi moni a ngā kura, a te iwi whānui hoki.  Hei tauira, i waiata ngā koea o ngā peka ki ngā hui kohi moni, ki ngā konohete, ki ngā poroporoaki hoki i ngā hōia.[27]  He mea nunui ngā kanikani Green and Gold i whakahaeretia e ngā peka, e ngā takiwā rānei, me ngā whakataetae kuīni.  He maha ngā mahi a ngā rōpū e tautoko ana i ngā wāhine hei kimi pūtea, ā, ka karaunatia te “kuini” i te kanikani.  Ko te pūrongo o te Takiwā o Waikato:

 Throughout the past month many functions have been held in honour of the Gold and Green Ball Queens. Parties, dances and concerts have been held to raise funds for queen votes, which in turn is to go to the patriotic fund.[28]

 I taua tau, ka kohia te £145/6/8 e te Komiti Kanikani o Nūhaka mō te Patriotic Committee o te rohe.  He kāinga āhua pakupaku a Nūhaka.[29]  I Māehe 1941, ka mea atu Te Karere, he tino pai te kohi moni a te Miutara i ngā kanikani o te tau o mua, engari, e kitea ana, kua memeha tōna ake pūtea e toe ana, nā reira, ka tukuna ngā hua o te Hui Tau ki te M.I.A.[30]  I Hepetema, ka whakahaua e te Poari Miutara kia wehea ngā hua o ngā kanikani o taua tau, he hautoru ki te Tari o te Poari, he hautoru mō ngā mahi pakanga, ā, kia mau te hautoru whakamutunga e ngā peka.[31]  Engari, e tinga anō, i te tau i muri ka nui atu te wāhanga i tukuna ki ngā kaupapa pakanga.  Hei tauira, i Heretaunga:

 During the months of August and September, the Hastings Patriotic Zone Funds were handsomely augmented by the Maori people of the district. Of the £1,300-odd collected, was the wonderful contribution of the Mutual Improvement Associations of Korongata, and the combined Te Hauke, Waipawa, Waimarama and Hastings Green and Gold Balls, which accounted for more than £1000 of the total.[32]

 I Pēpuere 1945, ka whakamōhiotia e Te Karere, kua whakautua te tono a Cowley kia mahi moni te Hāhi mō ngā kaupapa pakanga, ā, “to date the Mutual has contributed approximately £50,000. A proud effort indeed!” 

 Ko te mea whakarapa mō te Hāhi, nā ngā raruraru o te pakanga, kīhai te Hui Tau i tū i te tau 1942.  Engari, ka whakatau te Hāhi kia whakahaeretia he “Patriotic Hui Tau” i te tau 1943, arā, kia tukuna ngā hua katoa ki te pūtea e tautoko ana i ngā hōia e hoki mai ana i te pakanga, Māori mai, Pākehā mai.  Ko tētahi o ngā whāinga o Cowley he whakamāori i te Hāhi i roto i te iwi whānui o te motu; mā te mahi moni mō ngā kaupapa pakanga e tutuki ai.  

 In sponsoring this patriotic effort the Church is submitting itself to the scrutiny of the general public. If the hui is the success we hope it to be, it will do more to elicit the admiration of those not of us than anything we have done in recent years. It will also demonstrate in a very convincing manner the spirit of patriotism that is instilled within the hearts of faithful Latter-day Saints.[33]

 I Heretaunga te Hui nei, neke atu i te 2000 ngā tāngata i tae mai, ā, ko Tā Apirana Ngata tētahi o ngā kaikōrero hōnore.  I tonoa ngā peka o te rohe kia mahi moni, engari, ko te tino mea te whakataetae kuīni i whakahaeretia e te Miutara.  I wini i a Mrs Apikara Paewai o Tāmaki-nui-a-Rua (Dannevirke); tata ki te £8000 te pūtea i kohia e tōna rōpū.[34] He mahi whai-hua te Hui Tau.

 The New Zealand Mission of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints can justifiably point to this great effort with pride in sponsoring an effort which brings approximately £13,000 into the funds of the Patriotic Societies of this country.[35]

 Engari, ki a Cowley:

 it was one of the best missionary endeavours sponsored in New Zealand. How well the conference was conducted and the patriotic fund campaign was carried out is now well known, not only by those who were in attendance at the conference, but by people in all parts of the Dominion who have read the reports in the leading newspapers.[36]

 I a au e pānui ana i ngā whārangi o Te Karere, ka nui haere tōku mōhio ki ngā raruraru e pā ana ki ngā kāinga o ngā Mōmona Māori i ngā rongo o te pakanga. Arā, i roto o te wāhanga “News from the Field” i rīpoatatia ai ngā āhuatanga katoa o ngā peka, ō rātou pēpi hou, matenga, mārenatanga hoki, ā rātou mahi kohi moni, ngā mahi ā-hāhi, engari ko ngā rongo hoki o te pakanga.  Hei tauira, i Mei 1940, ka whakaaturia ki ngā kaipānui, ka āhua 50 ngā Mōmona o te Ope Hōia Māori (28th) i te puni ki Te Papaioea, ā, kua whakaritea e rātou ā rātou ake karakia i reira.[37]  I roto hoki i ngā rongo o ngā peka he kōrero mō ngā tāne e haere ana ki te puni whakangungu, mō ngā mea e hoki ana ki te kāinga whakatā ai, mō ngā hōia i tāwāhi, me ngā mea e hoki mai ana.  Hei tauira, mai i ngā rongo o te Takiwā o Mahia i Noema 1941:

 Leading Aircraftsman Sydney Taurima (Opoutama) has been home on leave[.] Sister Lena Taurima and family wish to thank all those who presented Bro. Sydney with gifts and telegrams of good wishes.

    Word has been received that Brother Ponti Te Kauru, [38] who was wounded in Crete was picked up by the German Red Cross, and was flown to a hospital in Greece, and is now a prisoner of war in Germany. Bro. Ponty reports that he is well treated, and wishes to be remembered to all.

    We are proud to announce that another group of our Nuhaka boys have left for Papakura Camp, including Benjamin Christy, Tilly Whaanga, John Smith, Stan Smith, Edgar Smith, George Haronga, Rajah Karangaroa. Bro. Tuehu Smith now has four sons in camp, Cleo is a corporal, while Riki has been transferred to Trentham, where we understand he is to be given the rank of 2nd Lieutenant. Congratulations boys! Nuhaka is proud of you all.[39]

 I whakatūria hoki he Ope Kāinga (Home Guards) ki tēnā rohe, ki tēnā rohe, ā, ka uru ngā Mōmona ki roto i aua rōpū.  He Ope Kāinga tō Judea [Hūria] e tata ana ki Tauranga; he Ope hoki tō Pipiwai ki te Taitokerau, ā, he mema te nuinga o ngā tāne Mōmona o Korongata nō te Ope o tō rātou kāinga.[40]  E 37 ngā tāne o te Ope o Tahoraiti; ko Lieut. Lui Paewai te āpiha, nō tētahi whānau Mōmona whakahirahira ia.

 Some of the members include Wi Duncan, Karauria Wirihana, William Thompson, William Harris, Leonard Snee and Ronald King. With a few more exercises and route marches, you will notice a big change with some of these brethren, especially Bro. Wi Duncan, who is the biggest member in the platoon.[41]

 Kāore e kore, i te āwangawanga ngā whānau o te hau kāinga i te tukunga atu o ā rātou tama, tamāhine rānei, ki tāwāhi.  Nā konei pea te ngākau rorotu o ngā reta mai i ngā hōia i tāwāhi, e tukua ana ki ō rātou hoa o te Hāhi, hei whakamāmā i te ngākau pōuri.  

 Private Ritchie Tatana of Auckland and Waikato, now serving with the Maori Battalion in the Middle East, sends greetings back, per medium of "Te Karere," to all his friends in the North Island. He reports that he is well and that the land of the Pharoahs is all that he expected it to be.[42]

 Word has been received from Sister Wiki Katene,[43] who is nursing overseas, that she is well grounded and her duties as a V.A.D. keep her forever on her feet. What little time she has off is spent, always, with some member of the Maori Battalion. Her brother, Georgie,[44] has spent much time with her, showing her the sights. Wiki has not had time enough to herself to get homesick—yet! Apparently Georgie sees to that. Incidentally the letter she was writing had to be brought to a close because Major E. T. W. Love[45] had arrived on the scene to "show her the town."[46]

 Mai i te mutunga o 1941, i te hoki mai ngā hōia Māori i te pakanga, arā ko ngā tūroro.  Tokomaha o ēnei hōia i tae mai ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, i pōwhiritia ai rātou e te Pirimia me ngā mema pāremata, e ngā kaumātua Māori, me Ngāti Pōneke (he rōpū ahurea, kapa-haka hoki, tēnei nō ngā Māori o taua tāone).  Kāore i ārikarika ngā Mōmona Māori e noho ana ki Porirua, ā, ka haere mai ētahi mema o te Hāhi ki te mātakitaki, ki te uru rānei ki roto i ēnei pōwhiri.[47]  I ētahi wā hoki, ka tāia e Te Karere he whakaahua nō ngā hōia Māori kua mate, kua mauherea rānei.[48] E katohia ana hoki ngā tau o te ate e ngā rongo pōuri mō ngā tāne kore rawa e hoki mai.

 We welcomed into our midst Sister Ao Elkington, wife of the late Arthur Elkington[49] of Madsen, and her son Angus, Arthur's sister, Polly, Bro. Turi Ruruku, relatives and friends. The gathering was a sad one, for we mourned the loss of our dear Bro. Arthur, who was killed in action recently. Shortly afterwards we learned of the death of Herbert Elkington,[50] twin son of Bro. and Sister James Elkington and nephew of Arthur's, who lost his life serving his country. To the relatives of these two fine men we extend our sincere and heartfelt sympathy in their loss, but we realise that what the gospel has taught us on life and death will help us bear our sorrows.[51]

 I te pakanga e mura ana, ka āhua rite ētahi o ngā mahi o te Hāhi Mōmona ki te wā o mua.  Ka tukuna e te Hāhi he ritenga i whakaaro ai ōna mema, e whakatairangatia ana te taha tinana me te taha wairua, i a rātou e pupuri ana i tō rātou Māoritanga.  I te toritori rātou, e uru ana ki roto i ngā tini mahi o te Hāhi, e whakahoahoa ana ki ngā mema o peka kē.  He nui atu pea ēnei momo mahi o te Hāhi Mōmona i ō ērā atu hāhi.  Engari, i ētahi wā, ka rarua ēnei mahi ā-hāhi e te pakanga.  Ki te Tumuaki o te Mīhana Mōmona, ki a Matthew Cowley, he āheitanga pea te pakanga e tū whakahīhī ai te Hāhi i te aroaro o te motu.  Nā konei, ka akiaki ia kia tomo kaha ngā mema Māori o te Hāhi ki roto i ngā mahi i kohia nei ngā moni hei tautoko i ngā mahi pakanga.  I whakapāngia hoki ngā whānau e te wehenga o ā rātou tama (me tētahi wahine) ki tāwāhi.  Kāore e kore, he nui te āwangawanga, me te tatari kia mutu te pakanga, kia hoki mai anō ā rātou rangatahi.

 

Whakaahua: ko te uhi o Te Karere, Ākuhata 1940.

Tapanga: “Proud we are of the splendid showing the Maori boys are making in the present call to service. The number who have responded to the enlistment call is truly a credit to the race. It is ample proof, in itself, that the native New Zealanders have become whole-heartedly British.” (wh.285.)

 

[1] Kua whikangia tēnei mai i te tatau nui o 1945. I te tatau-nui o 1936, e 5,257 ngā mema Māori o te Hāhi Mōmona, arā 88% o te Hāhi katoa.  Tirohia: The New Zealand Official Year-Book, 1947-1949. Statistics New Zealand: Digital Yearbook Collection, https://www3.stats.govt.nz/New_Zealand_Official_Yearbooks/1947-49/NZOYB_1947-49.html?_ga=2.221509531.2073420346.1616728099-1236804668.1616728099. (He mea titiro: 26/3/2021).

[2] Te Karere, Pēpuere 1942, wh.38-40. Kāore ētahi o ēnei kupu e whakamahia tonu ana e te Hāhi.  Tirohia: “LDS Church terms no longer in use”, Deseret News, 24/1/2008. https://www.deseret.com/2008/1/24/20066191/lds-church-terms-no-longer-in-use. (He mea titiro: 25/3/2021.)

[3] Hei tauira, Te Karere, Mei 1940, wh.185; Hune 1940, 226; Hūrae 1940, wh.268, 269. 

[4] Te Karere, Mei 1940, wh.161. 

[5] Ibid.

[6] Te Karere, Tīhema 1940, wh.485. 

[7] Te Karere, Āperira 1939, wh.121. 

[8] Ibid; Te Karere, Hune 1939, wh.189.   

[9] Te Karere, Māehe 1940, wh.103.   

[10] Te Karere, Āperira, 1940 wh.140; Mei 1940, wh.164.   

[11] Te Karere, Mei 1940 wh.164.

[12] Peter J. Lineham. “Cowley, Matthew”, Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/4c41/cowley-matthew (He mea titiro: 25/3/2021.)

[13] Te Karere, Ākuhata 1945, wh. 188.

[14] Kei te ipurangi Te Karere. Hei tauira, tirohia: https://archive.org/details/tekarere3900chur

[15] Te Karere, Ākuhata 1940, wh.303.

[16] Te Karere, Hūrae 1940, wh.267.

[17] Te Karere, Oketopa 1939, wh.361; Noema, 1940, wh.441.

[18] Te Karere, Oketopa 1940, wh.394.

[19] Te Karere, Hānuere 1940, wh.7.

[20] Te Karere, Hune 1942, wh.185.

[21] Te Karere, Hūrae 1943, wh.171.

[22] Te Karere, Oketopa 1940, wh.390-391.

[23] Hei tauira, Te Waka Karaitiana, Hepetema 1939, wh.98-99.

[24] Te Karere, Noema 1939, wh.406; Hānuere, 1940, wh.20-21.

[25] Te Karere, Āperira 1940, wh. 131, 148-149.

[26] Te Karere, Noema 1940, 425. Tirohia hoki, https://www.maorihomefront.nz/mi/whanau-korero/he-inoi-mo-te-wa-o-te-whawhai/

[27] Te Karere, Hānuere 1940, wh.23; Hūrae 1940, wh.269; Hūrae 1941, wh.736; Hune 1942, wh.185; Tīhema 1944, wh.327.

[28] Te Karere, Oketopa 1940, wh.394.

[29] Te Karere, Noema 1940, wh.440.

[30] Te Karere, Māehe 1941, wh.594-595.

[31] Te Karere, Hepetema 1941, wh.778.

[32] Te Karere, Noema 1942, wh.306.

[33] Te Karere, Māehe 1943, wh.62.

[34] Te Karere, Hune 1943, wh.134-136.

[35] Te Karere, Hune 1943, wh.133.

[36] Te Karere, Hune 1943, wh.134.

[37] Te Karere, Mei 1940, wh.184.

[38] Ko Poneke Te Kauru tōna ingoa.  Tirohia: https://www.28maoribattalion.org.nz/soldier/poneke-te-kauru

[39] Te Karere, Noema 1941, wh.847.

[40] Te Karere, Hūrae 1941, wh.736; Hune 1942, wh.185; Noema 1943, wh.291.

[41] Te Karere, Āperira 1943, wh.100.

[42] Te Karere, Tīhema 1941, wh.881.

[43] Tirohia: https://www.aucklandmuseum.com/war-memorial/online-cenotaph/record/C118580

[44] Tirohia: https://www.28maoribattalion.org.nz/soldier/george-katene

[45] Tirohia: https://www.28maoribattalion.org.nz/soldier/eruera-te-whiti-o-rongomai-love

[46] Te Karere, Hūrae 1942, wh.213.

[47] Hei tauira, tirohia Te Karere, Tīhema 1941, wh.881; Pēpuere 1942, wh.54; Ākuhata 1942, wh.242; Āperira 1943, wh.101; Hepetema 1944, wh.239.

[48] Hei tauira, tirohia, see Te Karere, Hepetema 1942, wh.254; Hānuere 1943, wh.9.

[49] Tirohia: https://www.28maoribattalion.org.nz/soldier/john-arthur-elkington

[50] Tirohia: https://www.28maoribattalion.org.nz/soldier/herbert-lance-elkington

[51] Te Karere, Ākuhata 1943, wh.194.

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