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Te Hinganga ā-pōti o Ngata i te tau 1943

Ngata 1943
Maori Home Front Blog Avatar
Lachy Paterson
23 Haratua, 2020

E rua ngā take e hira nei te pōtitanga o 1943 mō te ao Māori. Tuatahi, ko te whakaeatanga tēnei o te poropititanga a T.W. Rātana, ka riro i tāna rōpū tōrangapū ngā koata e whā, arā, ko ngā tūru Māori e whā i roto i te pāremata.[1]  Tuarua, nā te tangohanga o te koata whakamutunga nei, o te tūru Māori ki te Rāwhiti, i hinga ai a Tā Āpirana Ngata (nō Ngāti Porou), a te mema o taua tūru mai i te tau 1905.[2] He takiwā rahi tō te tūru nei, mai i Wairarapa ki Hāku Pei, ki te Tai Rāwhiti, tae atu ki te Pei o Pereti. Kīhai tōna hinganga i pērā ki tōna pāti, ki a Nāhinara. Ahakoa i tū tonu te kāwanatanga Reipa, ka whiwhia hoki he tūru hou e taua āpititanga.  Engari, ka taea pea te hinganga o Ngata te matakite.

 

I te tīmatanga ka aro a T.W. Rātana ki ngā mahi whakapono, arā, hei kaiwhakaora. Nāwai rā ka whakatūria he hāhi hou, engari ka tahuri ia ki te taha tōrangapū i te tekautau 1920.  Nā te tango a Eruera Tirikātene i te tūru Māori ki te Tonga i te tau 1932, ka riro i a Rātana te koata tuatahi; nā tāna tama, nā Tokouru te mea tuarua i te tau 1935, arā, ko te tūru Māori ki te Hauāuru.  He rite tonu tā te rōpū Rātana hāpai i ngā mōrehu.  Ko ēnei ngā rawakore o te ao Māori, ngā ware, me ngā tāngata hoki i mahue i te ao hurihuri.  Kīhai i roa, i te mahi tahi rātou ko te Rōpū Reipa, ā, kīhai i whakatūria he kaitono Reipa hei whakataetae i ngā tūru Māori.  Ka riro i a Reipa te mana kāwanatanga i te tau 1935, ka uru a Tirikātene rāua ko Tokouru Rātana ki roto i taua pāti, ā, i te tau i whai mai, ka whakapūmautia he whakaaetanga haumi o aua rōpū e rua e Rātana rāua ko te pirimia hou, ko Michael Savage.[3]

 

He tangata rongonui a Ngata. Koia te tangata tuatahi i puta mai i te whare wānanga Pākehā, me te tohu ture me te tohu MA mō ngā take tōrangapū. Koia hoki te kaihautū o te Kōtahitanga o Te Aute, arā, o te Young Māori Party i te taha o Tā Māui Pōmare rāua ko Te Rangihīroa [Tā Pita Paaka].  He rangatahi rātou i puta mai i te whare wānanga i te tīmatanga o tērā rautau, he karaitiana, he kaikaha hoki ki te whakatika i te ao Māori.  Hei wheao a Ngata ki te kaitōrangapū rongonui o Ngāti Kahungunu, ki a Tā Timi Kara. Ka piki ake āna mahi i roto i te Whare Pāremata tae atu ki te tūranga o te Minita o ngā Take Māori mai i te tau 1928, i anga ai ia ki te rauhī mai i ngā whenua Māori kia tōnui ai.  Engari, nā ētahi hapa e pā ana ki ngā kaute, ka kaha whakahēngia ia e Reipa, ā, ka rīhainatia tōna tūranga minita i te tau 1934.

 

Kāore he māharahara ō Ngata mō te pōtitanga o 1932; tokorua anake ngā kaitono, ko rāua ko te tangata o Rātana, ko P. Te T.T. Moko, ā, tata ki te 71% ngā pōti ki a Ngata.  Tokorua ōna hoariri mō te pōtitanga o 1935; he kaimahi pāmu rāua, ko Tiaki Ōmana (nō Ngāti Kahungunu, ko Jack Ormond tōna ingoa Pākehā) kei kaitono Rātana, ā, ko Rēweti Kōhere hei kaitono Motuhake.  I mua ka tautoko a Kōhere i te Kōtahitanga o Te Aute, ā, ka mahi ia hei minita o te Hāhi Mihingare.  I a ia e minita ana, e mōhiotia whānuitia ana tōna whakakino i a Rātana; he maha āna tuhinga i roto i ngā niupepa reo Māori mai te te tekautau 1920 i whakahēngia ai te whakapono me ngā mahi tōrangapū a Rātana.[4]  E ai ki a Walker, ahakoa i tautoko a Kōhere i a Ngata i ngā tau o mua, kua tahuri kē ki te kairiri i a ia.[5]  Ehara te pōtitanga nei i te raruraru mō Ngata; e 5712 ōna pōti; e 2477 ki a Ōmana, e 411 anake i riro i a Kōhere.[6]

 

He rerekē te pōtitanga o 1938.  Ahakoa e 47 tau ki mua i whakaturetia ai te tikanga o te pōti huna mō ngā tūru Pākehā, ko te pōtitanga tuatahi tēnei i pēneitia mō te iwi Māori.  Nā reira i tokomaha kē ai ngā kaipōti Māori i ērā atu pōtitanga o mua i tūria ai ō rātou ringa hei tohu pōti.[7]

 

Tokomaha kē ngā kaitono i te tūru Māori ki te Rāwhiti i te tau 1838.  I te tū anō te mema, a Ngata.  Nā, i whakatauria e te Pāti Reipa (koia te kāwanatanga) kia tū he kaitono tūturu, ā, ka kōwhiritia a Matu Rangi (o Tūranga) hei kaitono Reipa.[8]  Engari i āta whakararua a Rangi e Kōhere (e ōna kaitautoko rānei). I mea mai tētahi reta ki te niupepa o Tūranga, “Everybody knows of the position he [Kōhere] holds amongst the Maoris. For the Wellington people to turn him down is hard to understand and is enough to make one disgusted”.[9]  Kīhai i roa, ka unu a Rangi i tōna ingoa, ā, ka whakatūria a Kōhere hei kaitono tūturu mō Reipa.[10]  Engari, i a ia e kōrero ana ki ngā kaipōti o Mangatuna, ka meatia e Kōhere me tautoko a Rangi i a ia, i te kaitono o Reipa; ka tuhi kē a Rangi ki te Poverty Bay Herald e kī ana, kua tuku reta a Kōhere “to some of my supporters that he would be a better man for the position than I”.  Mehemea ko te tino tangata ia, kāore e matea ana te tautoko a Rangi mā. “I wish to inform Mr. Kohere that I am very sorry that my people and I are not supporting him.”[11] Kātahi a Matu Rangi ka uru ki roto i reihi, engari hei kaitono “Reipa Motuhake”, arā, e anga ana ki ngā kaupapa o Reipa, ahakoa ehara ia i te kaitono tūturu.  I te taha whakateuru o te takiwā, nā ngā “strong representations of a large number of Maori people in the electorate”  ka tū hoki a Harry Dansey (nō Te Arawa) hei kaitono Motuhake. [12]

 

Kīhai ngā tāngata o Rātana i pīrangi ki te tautoko i te kaitono i whakahāweatia ai tō rātou whakapono i ngā tau o mua, ā, i tētahi hui ki Rātana Pā, ka karangatia a Tiaki Ōmana e ngā tāngata o taua takiwā kia tū anō hei kaitono “Reipa Motuhake”.[13] Tērā tētahi atu tangata, ko Tiki Paaka (nō Ōpōtiki), engari ka unuhia tōna ingoa i mua i te rā tautapa.

 

Nā te tokomaha o ngā kaitono, ka toa anō a Tā Āpirana Ngata.  Engari he rahi atu te kaute o ngā pōti o ērā atu kaitono ki tōna kaute.  E 4160 ki a Ngata, engari e 3088 ki a Kōhere, e 332 ki a Dansey, e 347 ki a Rangi, e 2150 ki a Ōmana.[14]  Nā te pōti Rātana a Kōhere i kore ai e whiwhi ki te tūru.  Kīhai te Pāti Reipa i pai ki te kaute nei.  I kī mai te tumuaki o te Kaunihera Aroturuki Māori, a Rangi Mawhete:

 

If there had not been a split in the Labour vote in Eastern Maori, the whole four seats would have been won by Labour, but unfortunately three of the candidates who opposed the official Labour candidate, Mr. R. T. Kohere were members of the party and had entered the selection ballot and pledged themselves to support the candidate that should be chosen by the national executive. Unfortunately, Messers. Matu Rangi, H.D. Dansey, and John Ormond did not remain true to the party or their pledges, and Sir Apirana Ngata won on a minority vote.[15]

 

Nā te pakanga i whakatōmuritia ai te pōtitanga ki te tau 1943, engari, ka whakaritea e te Pāti Reipa kia kaua tō rātou pōti e wehea anō.  Tokorua anake ngā kaitono mō te tūru Māori ki te Rāwhiti, ko Tā Āpirana Ngata rāua ko Tiaki Ōmana.  I te āwangawanga pea a Ngata, nā te mea, ka tukuna e ia tētahi o āna wheao, ko Tame Te Whetū, kia haere ana ki ngā hui a Ōmana kia kitea te tokomaha e tautoko ana i a ia.  E ai ki a Walker, “Te Whetū was so impressed with Labour’s policies he became an instant convert to Labour.”  I a Ōmana te wikitōria, e 5462 ōna pōti, e 5222 ki a Ngata.[16] 

 

Tērā pea ka whakaarohia e ngā kaipōti he tangata nō nanahi a Ngata; e 69 ōna tau i 1943.  Engari kua tahuri ngā tini Māori ki te Rōpū Reipa, nā te mea, i te tau 1935 ka whakaritea ngā moni oranga mā ngā tāngata kore-mahi, ahakoa Māori, ahakoa Pākehā; ā, i te tau 1938 i whakaputaina ai he pūtea mō te hauora me ērā atu ratonga mō ngā tāngata katoa. E tū ana ngā kaitono Māori tokowhā ki runga ake i ngā wehenga ā-hāhi, ā, ka meatia e rātou, nā tō rātou haumi ko Reipa ēnei painga i puta mai ai.[17]  Mai i tēnei pōtitanga, ka rua tekau tau ngā koata e whā i puritia ai e ngā mema Rātana, tae noa ki a Puti Tīpene Wātene (he Mōmona) i riro ai te tūru Māori ki Rāwhiti hei kaitono Reipa.[18]

 

Ahakoa i tata te reihi o 1943, ka mutu te mahi roa a Ngata, i muri i ōna tau e 38 i roto i te pāremata.  I tū anō ia hei kaitono mō te pōtitanga o 1946, engari, ka wini anō i a Ōmana. I muri i te hinganga o Reipa i te tau 1949, ka whakatūria a Ngata e te kāwanatanga Nāhinara hei mema o te Whare o Runga o te pāremata, engari, i mua i tāna taenga ki reira, ka hemo rawa ia.[19]  He rangatira a Ngata nō te pāremata, e kīa ana “te matua o te Whare”, ā, he mema i mahi tahi me ngā pāti katoa mō ngā take Māori, mō ngā mahi pakanga hoki.  Koia anō ia te mema anake i pōti kia tārewa tonu te pōtitanga o 1943  i runga i te whakaaro “an election might affect the war effort”.[20]   I kaha hoki ia ki te kimi tāngata, ki te mahi moni hoki mō te Te Hokowhitu-a-Tū, arā, mō te ope hōia Māori, ā, ka pērā tonu āna mahi i muri i te tau 1943.[21]  Ko tā te Gisborne Herald i muri tata iho o tōna hinganga ā-pōti, “No historian of the Maori race will fail to record what the former Eastern Maori representative did to put the famed Maori Battalion in the field in this war.”[22]

 

Whakaahua: E kōrero ana a Tā Āpirana Ngata i mua i te kapa haka, Collins, Tudor Washington, 1898-1970, kaitango whakaahua, c.1943, PH-2013-7-TC-B417-01 [Auckland War Memorial Museum].

 

[1] M. P. K. Sorrenson, “Colonial rule and local response: Maori responses to European domination in New Zealand since 1860”, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, Puka 4, Nama 2 (1976): 135-6; Keith Newman, Ratana Revisited: An Unfinished Legacy, Auckland: Reed, 2006, wh.248.

[2] M. P. K. Sorrenson. ‘Ngata, Apirana Turupa’, Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, he mea whakaputa i te tau 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/3n5/ngata-apirana-turupa (he mea kite i te 20 Mei 2020)

[3] Sorrenson. ‘Ngata, Apirana Turupa’

[4] Hei tauira, Te Kopara, 30 Hune 1921: 5-8; Te Toa Takitini, 1 Ōketopa 1921: 2-3; 1 Pēpuere 1922: 13-15; 1 Hepetema 1928: 842-844; 1 Mei 1930: 2055-6; 1 Ōketopa 1930: 2167-9.

[5] Ranginui Walker, He Tipua: The Life and Times of Sir Āpirana Ngata, Auckland: Viking (Penguin), 2001, wh.314.

[6] Auckland Star, 17 Noema 1935: 10.

[7] The Origin of the Māori Seats, Parliamentary Library Research Paper (Noema 2003, he mea whakahau i Mei 2009). https://www.parliament.nz/mi/pb/research-papers/document/00PLLawRP03141/origins-of-the-māori-seats (he mea kite i te 22 Mei 2020)

[8] Thames Star, 26 Mei 1935: 6.

[9] Poverty Bay Herald, 3 Ākuhata 1938: 16.

[10] Poverty Bay Herald, 8 Hepetema 1938: 4

[11] Poverty Bay Herald, 27 Hepetema 1938: 16.

[12] New Zealand Herald, 24 Hepetema 1938: 17.

[13] Poverty Bay Herald, 24 Hepetema 1938: 6; Newman, Ratana, wh.358.

[14] Alexandra Herald and Central Otago Gazette, 19 Ōketopa 1938: 2.

[15]Evening Post, 11 Āperira 1938: 10.

[16] Walker, He Tipua, wh.360. I mahi a Matu Rangi hei kaiwhakahaere ā-pōtitanga mō Ngata i te tau 1943. Tirohia Gisborne Herald, 21 Hepetema 1943: 6.

[17] Ann Sullivan, “Effecting Change through Electoral Politics: Cultural Identity and the Māori Franchise”, Journal of the Polynesian Society, Puka 112, Nama 3 (2003): 223-4.

[18] Manuka Henare. 'Wātene, Puti Tīpene - Watene, Puti Tipene', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, he mea whakaputa i 2000. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5w12/watene-puti-tipene (he mea kite i te 22 May 2020)

[19]Gisborne Herald, 23 Hune 1950: 6.

[20] Ashburton Guardian, 13 Hepetema 1943: 2.

[21] Evening Post, 16 Mei 1944: 4.

[22] Gisborne Herald, 25 September 1943: 4.

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