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Te Māpere Ahumahi, ngā Poari Pīra mō te Māpere, me te iwi Māori.

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Maori Home Front Blog Avatar
Ross Webb
08 Haratua, 2021

I puta mai ngā rekureihana o te māpere ahumahi (e kīa ana te “manpowering”) i te tau 1942.[1] Nā te whakaaro he hira ake ētahi mahi, ētahi umanga hoki i ētahi atu mō te taha pakanga i whakatūria ai aua rekureihana.  Nā te kāwanatanga i whakarite he aha aua momo mahi hira, ā, nā konei i kore ai ngā kaimahi e wātea ki te whiriwhiri i ā rātou ake mahi.  Mehemea kua whakanohoia rātou ki tētahi mahi hira, kāore e whakaaetia ana kia wehe atu.[2]  I taua wā hoki ka whakahaua ētahi kaimahi kia wehea ā rātou mahi, kia uru kē ki roto i tētahi mahi hira.  Engari, ka taea e ngā kaimahi me ngā kaiwhakawhiwhi mahi ēnei whakahau te pīra i mua i te aroaro o te Poari Pīra o te Māpere Ahumahi [Industrial Manpower Appeal Board]

Ina āta tirohia ngā ritenga o te māpere ahumahi, ka kitea ngā whakaaro o ngā āpiha kāwanatanga ki te ahumahi me Ngāi Māori, ko te hononga o ngā uniana ki ngā kaimahi Māori, me ngā mahi a ngā Komiti ā-Iwi o ngā tini rohe o te motu.

He mahi māpere?

I whakatauria kētia te take o Ngāi Māori me te māpere hōia i mua i te tau 1942, kia kaua ngā tāne Māori e māperetia kia haere ki tāwāhi. Engari, kīhai anō te take o te māpere ahuwhenua i whakaritea, ina noa atu kia pēheatia ngā rekureihana mō ngā wāhine Māori.

I Ōketopa 1942 ka tuku reta te Minita o te Māpere Ahumahi ki te Minita o te MWEO [Māori War Effort Organisation], ki a Paraire Paikiea (koia hoki te Mema Pāremata Māori o te Taitokerau), e kī ana, ka rite ngā rekureihana mō ngā kaimahi katoa, Pākehā mai, Māori mai. 

As regards those Maoris who continue to maintain their association with their tribes and Maori tradition, that the District Man-Power Officers would seek the co-operation of the elder of the tribe or of any other Maori organisation locally available to him on any points which might arise affecting such Maoris. As regards Maoris who have completely severed their connection with their tribes and traditions it was agreed that they should be treated exactly the same as other workers.[3]

Kīhai i whakamāramatia, me pēhea e wehea ai ngā Māori e piri tonu ana ki ō rātou iwi me ngā mea e tū iwi-kore ana.

Engari, kua mārama, ka rarua e ngā rekureihana te ia o ngā ōhanga ā-whānau, me ngā mahi o ia wāhanga o te tau.  I amumau ētahi āpiha ā-kāwana mō ngā wāhine Māori e whakarere ana i ngā mahi hira, kāore he whakaaetanga nā te Tari Māpere. Ki a rātou, he wero taua momo wehe ki ngā rekureihana.

I kī hoki te MWEO o Heretaunga ki a Bob Tūtaki o te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi o Aorearoa [New Zealand Workers’ Union], ka aro rātou ki te ‘test the effects of the Regulations regarding the release of Maoris from essential industries, particularly where the Maori women folk are required to go shearing’.

Engari, kāore anō kia meatia, ka werohia aua rekureihana e ngā kaimahi Māori anō. I Ōketopa 1942, ka whakakāhoretia te pīra a tētahi wahine Māori kia wehe atu ia i te Pukeora Sanatorium i Waipukurau.  Nāwai rā, ka wehe pokanoa ia.[4]

Me aha ngā āpiha?  I wānangahia e rātou me pēhea te māpere i ngā kaimahi Māori, kia kore he ātetetanga e pupū mai.  Ka whakatūpato a Paikea ki ngā āpiha, mā te ritenga a te Kāwanatanga pea e puta mai ai he ‘reaction on the Maori mind [which] will undoubtedly be to construe [it as] straight out conscription’. Me waiho kē mā te MWEO hei whakahaere, kia māperetia a Ngāi Māori e rātou anō.  Ka tohe hoki ia me whaikupu te Komiti ā-Iwi o te rohe i mua i te whakahau kia haere atu he tangata ki tētahi mahi hira, kia wehe atu rānei ia i tāna mahi.[5]

He pono ngā āwangawanga o te iwi Māori mō te māperetanga.  Nō te whakahē a te rangatira o Te Kuiti Line Co., tokorua ngā tāne Māori kāore e uru ana ki roto i te Ope Kāinga [Home Guard], i te Emergency Precautions Service (EPS) rānei, ka meatia e ngā āpiha kāwanatanga, kāore he ture me uru rāua ki roto i te Ope Kāinga, engari he herenga kē tō rāua ‘to join up with the EPS and take their part in some Civil Defence Duties’. Ki tō ngā āpiha whakaaro, i te tūpato ngā tāne tokorua, mā te uru ki roto i aua rōpū, ka māperetia rāua kia haere ki tāwāhi whawhai ai, ā, kāore he kupu kia puta kē tō rāua whakaaro.  I te reta a tētahi āpiha ki a Paikea, ‘I realise that there are still some traces of anti-Pakeha feeling among the King Country Maoris, and I therefore wish, if possible, to avoid taking the cases to Court, as would normally be done with Europeans who failed to enrol’.[6]

Whakaae ake te Kāwanatanga i te tono a Paikea kia whakahaere te MWEO me ngā Komiti ā-Iwi i te māpere i ngā kaimahi Māori.[7]  I tuhi atu a H.C. Hemphill (ko te Āpiha Takawaenga o te MWEO) ki ngā Komiti A-Iwi katoa hei whakamōhio i te tikanga hou.

New Zealand’s essential industries call to all of you to help your Country by working for Victory… You will appreciate that never before has so much direct responsibility been given to the Maori People… Upon the Tribal Committees and Tribal Executive Committees will fall responsibility for organising the industrial side of the Maori War Effort’.[8]

Nā konei, ka ngohengohe haere te Kāwanatanga.  Hei tauira, ka whakaaetia ngā kōhine Māori e mahi ana ki Watties Canneries kia wehe atu mō te wā kutikuti hipi ‘provided they returned . . . on conclusion of the shearing season’.

Engari, mehemea ka mutu pokanoa anō tā rātou mahi ki tētahi umanga hira, ka ekea rātou e ngā ‘penalties under the Industrial Manpower Emergency Regulations’.[9]  Ka tuhi hoki a Hemphill ki ngā tumuaki me ngā hekeretari o ngā Kōmiti ā-Iwi, ‘nothing is more likely to damage the Maori War Effort generally and to bring discredit on the Maori Race, during this time of stress, than deliberate absence from work without reasonable excuse… workers who so absent themselves must expect the full application of the law’.[10]

Ngā Poari Pīra mō te Māpere

Puta noa te wā pakanga, ka tū he kaimahi Māori i te aroaro o ngā Poari Pīra ki te wero i ngā whakahau māpere. Heoi anō, ahakoa he ārikarika aua momo pīra, he kēhi whakakitekite kē.

Hei tauira, i te tōmuritanga o te tau 1943, i te hui o te Poari Pīra o te Māpere Ahumahi ki Ōtepoti, ka pīratia e tētahi kaimahi rerewē te whakahau kia mahi ia hei kaikutikuti hipi i raro i te Waikouaiti Primary Production Committee.  He wahine tāna, tokorima ā rāua tamariki, ā, kua mahi ia hei kaikutikuti i mua; i mōhio ia, he iti iho ngā utu, ā, ka pīrau tōna tūranga i roto i te Tari Rerewē me te kakenga ki ngā tūranga pai ake.[11] I āhua ohorere a J.T. Flowers, ko te āpiha māpere o Ōtepoti, i te pīra nei; ki tōna whakaaro, ka hiahiatia tēnei momo mahi e te tangata Māori.[12] I hinga te pīra, heoi ka whakatauria, me haere te kaimahi ki te mahi hei kaikutikuti mō ngā marama e rua; kia oti, ka hoki ia ki tāna mahi rerewē.[13]

I ētahi wā, nā ngā Komiti ā-Iwi i kawe ngā kēhi o ngā tāngata Māori. Hei tauira, i meatia e Luke Rangi o te Komiti o Ngāti Awa kia kawea te kēhi a tētahi ākonga ā-whare wānanga; ko te take te uauatanga o te whakahau me mahi te taitama ki ngā mahinga kai i Patumāhoe.  Ko te āhua nei, i pēnei a Rangi nā te mea kua whakakāhore te tari māpere i tā te Komiti ā-Iwi i whakatau ai.[14]

Kāti.  Ehara i te mea ko ngā kaimahi Māori anake i mua i te Poari Pīra. I waenganui o te tau 1943, tokorua ngā tāne Māori i tonoa kia mahi ki te pāpuni hiko-ā-awa i Karapiro.  I pīratia te whakahau e te kamupene, nā te mea, i whakapeka te kuki o Karapiro ki te whāngai i ngā Māori.

I whakakāhoretia te pīra, engari i riria te take o te kamupene me te kuki.  I whakahēngia te pīra e te Komiti ā-Iwi o Uenukukōpako.  I meinga mai e te hekeretari o taua komiti, e E. Mita, ‘Much has been said of the outstanding exploits of the Maori Battalion . . . but apparently there are still some Europeans who think that the Maori people are not worthy of the much vaunted “freedom” their comrades died to preserve’.  Ko tāna hoki, he take pōuri tēnei, ‘smacks of Hitlerism’, ā, he huarahi e kino ai te whanaungatanga o te Māori me te Pākehā.[15]  I whakahēngia hoki te take a te kamupene e te Tumuaki o te RSA. I pēnei hoki te Uniana Kāmura, e kī ana, ‘We wish to associate ourselves completely with the protests made by the Uenukukopaka [sic] Tribal Committee against the discrimination against Maoris at Arapuni’.[16]

Te Kaha Ahumahi o te Māori

I Māehe 1943, ka whakahīhī te kupu a Paikea ki te Pāremata, tua atu i ērā atu o āna mahi, 11,550 ngā Māori kua whakaurua e te MWEO ki roto i ngā mahi hira.[17]  Nō te tōmuatanga o te tau 1945, kua tae atu te tokomaha o ngā Māori e mahi ana ki ngā umanga hira ki te 15,000.[18] He whika whakamīharo tēnei, i te mea ka āhua 99,000 te tatau Māori i taua tau, ā, e 58% i raro i te 21 tau.

Kua whakakitea e ngā kaituhi hītori te nui o te kaha o te iwi Māori, me te mahi whakahirahira a te MWEO hei hāpai i tēnei take. E ai ki a Richard Hill, ko te māpere me te whakahaere i ngā kaimahi te tino mahi a ngā tini peka o te MWEO.[19]  I tuhi pēnei a Claudia Orange, nā te tino hiahia ki ngā kaimahi i te wā pakanga i nui haere ai te mana o ngā Komiti ā-Iwi.   Tokomaha ngā Māori i karangatia, ‘often at short notice, to fulfil labour quotas for specific jobs’ ā, i ētahi rohe, mehemea kāore he kaimahi Māori, kīhai ngā whare patu kararehe me ngā kamupene miraka i ora tonu.[20]

He ngākau pai hoki ō ngā pūrongo ā-kawanatanga mō ngā mahi a ngā Kōmiti ā-Iwi, me te māpere i ngā kaimahi Māori.

Almost all directions finally issued by District Man-Power Officers have, as a result of the consultative service rendered by tribal committees and Maori Utilization Committees, been accepted without question by the workers concerned.

E ai ki te pūrongo mō te Tari Māpere i Tāmaki-makau-rau, e 3,000 ngā whakahau i tukuna atu ki ngā kaimahi Māori, ‘none of which have been appealed against’.[21]

E ai ki a David Littlewood, he ruarua ngā pīra a ngā kaimahi, a ngā kamupene rānei, ki ngā Poari Māpere. I pēnei anō hoki ngā kaimahi Māori, nā ngā mahi a ngā Komiti ā-Iwi i raro i te MWEO.[22]

Ahakoa i ouou ngā pīra, ka whakakitea ngā āhuatanga o ngā wheako o te hau kāinga. Ka kitea ngā raruraru i puta mai i te māpere i ngā kaimahi Māori, ā, he whīwhiwhi atu pea i te hītori e tukuna atu i ētahi wā. 

Whakaahua: He kaimahi Māori i te pāmu o Claude Hume, Katikati, i te Pakanga Tuarua.  Ref: Image 09-070. Tauranga City Libraries. https://paekoroki.tauranga.govt.nz/nodes/view/1961

 

[1] Rekureihana = regulation; Māpere = conscription, manpowering; Pīra = appeal.

[2] Montgomerie, The Women’s War, wh.86.

[3] Minister of Industrial Manpower to Paikea, 15 Ōketopa 1942, General – Maoris, L1, Box 231, 30/1/28, Part 1, ANZ, Wellington.

[4] District Manpower Officer to Controller of Manpower, 15 Ōketopa 1942, General – Maoris, L1, Box 231, 30/1/28, Part 1, ANZ, Wellington.

[5] Paikea, ‘Liability for Maoris to Register for Essential Works’, 20 Ōketopa 1942, General – Maoris, L1, Box 231, 30/1/28, Part 1, ANZ, Wellington.

[6] Memorandum for Paikea, ‘Maori enrolments in the E.P.S’, 3 Tīhema 1942. General – Maoris, L1, Box 231, 30/1/28, Part 1, ANZ, Wellington.

[7] The Press, 9 Nowema 1942.

[8] Hemphill to all Chairmen and Secretaries of Maori Tribal Committees, 24 Ōketopa 1942, General – Maoris, L1, Box 231, 30/1/28, Part 1, ANZ, Wellington.

[9] ‘Notes of Meeting or Representatives of Hawkes Bay Maori Tribal Committee held at Hastings’, 4 Nowema 1942, General – Maoris, L1, Box 231, 30/1/28, Part 1, ANZ, Wellington.

[10] Hemphill to all the chairmen and secretaries of the tribal committees and executive committees, 25 Nowema 1942. General – Maoris, L1, Box 231, 30/1/28, Part 1, ANZ, Wellington.

[11] Evening Star, 13 Tīhema 1943.

[12] Evening Star, 13 Tīhema 1943.

[13] Evening Star, 14 Tīhema 1943.

[14] Luke Rangi, Tribal Secretary to Taylor, Maori War Effort, Parliament Buildings, Wellington, 15 Tīhema 1943, 30/1/28, Part 1, ANZ, Wellington.

[15] Nelson Evening Mail, 13 June 1944; Auckland Star, 20 Hune 1944.

[16] Auckland Star, 26 Hune 1944.

[17] NZPD, Vol.262, wh.359.

[18] Hill, State Authority, Indigenous Autonomy, wh.194.

[19] Hill, State Authority, Indigenous Autonomy, wh.194.

[20] Orange, ‘A Kind of Equality’, wh.131.

[21] AJHR, H11a, 1945, wh.40.

[22] Īmēra mai i David Littlewood, 16 Āperira 2021.

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