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Tērā ētahi kaikaiwaiū Māori i te wā pakanga?

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Maori Home Front Blog Avatar
Lachy Paterson
27 Pipiri, 2021

 

I te kōkiri a Hapani i a Pearl Harbour i te 7 Tīhema 1941, me te nekenga mai o āna hōia ki Āhia-ki-te-Tonga-mā-Rāwhiti me te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ka rua ngā hoariri o Aotearoa. I te haere tata kē mai o te pakanga ki ō tātou motu, ka āwangawanga haere te iwi, ā, i ētahi wā ka tino kohuki rātou.  I te tau 1942, ka rangona he mahara mō te piripono o te rōpū Rātana.  Ahakoa tokotoru ngā mema Māori Rātana i roto i te kāwanatanga Reipa, ka uia te pātai – i tūmanako ngā tāngata Rātana kia wikitoria a Hapani, kāore rānei.  Ko te mānakanaka nei mō te piripono o te Māori, inarā, o te taha Rātana te kaupapa o tēnei kōrero, ā, e tohea ana, kāore he tino take mō ngā whakapaepae i puta mai i te wā o te maurirere me te kohuki.

 

He aha a Aotearoa i mataku ai i a Hapani?

I te piki te mana o Hapani i te tīmatanga o rua tekau o ngā rautau, he mea whakakite e tāna patunga i a Rūhia ki Port Arthur i te tau 1905.  Mā te Ango-Japanese Alliance o 1902 i haumi ai a Hapani ki Ingarangi, ā, ka whakahōnoretia taua Tiriti e āna mahi hei āwhina i te Emepaea o Piritene me ōna hoa i te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao.  Hei utu, ka riro i a Hapani ngā motu o Tiamana ki te Moananui-a-Kiwa, me (ahakoa i whakahēngia e te kāwanatanga o Haina) te wāhi Tiamana i te porowini o Shandong.  He mea whakapūmau tēnei e te Tiriti o Versailles i te tau 1919.

I te wā me whakahou te Alliance i te tau 1920, ka māharahara ngā whenua “mā” o te Emepaea, hei hoa rānei a Hapani ki a rātou, hei whakahakahaka rānei?  Heoi anō, nā te tohetohe Marikena, ka hainatia te Four-Power Treaty e Ingarangi, e Amerika, e Wīwī, e Hapani hoki, kia whakaritea ā rātou mahi ki te Moananui-a-Kiwa.  Nā te whakaturetanga o taua Tiriti i te tau 1923 i mutu kau ai te Alliance o Ingarangi me Hapani.  Nā konei i nui ai te tūpato o Aotearoa ki ngā takune o Hapani.[1] 

He nui hoki ngā whakaaro kaikiri i roto i ngā whenua o te Emepaea, pērā me Aotearoa me Ahitereiria, mō te “mōrearea kōwhai”, arā, kei waipuketia ngā iwi “mā” e ngā tini tāngata o Āhia.  E kitea ana hoki ēnei whakaaro i roto i ngā School Journal o ngā kura o Aotearoa.  Tērā tētahi tuhinga i te tau 1923 i whakatūpatoria ai “the potential threat posed by China and Japan.  The answer in this case, was to be found in attracting more British migrants as a bulwark against a land-starved Asia.”[2]

I Haina ngā tino takune o te Emepaea o Hapani ki te apo whenua i ngā tekautau i waenganui o ngā pakanga nunui o te Ao.  He wāhi a Shandong i wehe atu ai āna hōia ki te tāmi i ngā Hainamana.  I muri i tētahi whawhai ki  Mukden i te tau 1931, ka whakaeke āna hōia ki roto ki Manchuria; ka whakatū ai i te kāwanatanga pononga, ko Manchukuo te ingoa.  I te noho mokemoke a Aotearoa, ā, i nui haere tōna āwangawanga i aua mahi ririhau a Hapani. ‘New Zealand’s only means of defence, given the United States’ isolationism, was the Royal Navy and its much-vaunted base at Singapore’.[3]  I te tau 1937, ka whakaeke a Hapani i Haina tūturu; he maha ngā whenua i tangohia, ā, ka whawhai tonu rātou tae atu ki te mutunga o te Pakanga Tuarua.

I te whakatūranga o Reipa hei kāwanatanga i te tau 1935, ka kaha ake te reo o Aotearoa i roto i te League of Nations, e whakahē ana i te ngākau haumate o ērā atu whenua ki ngā whenua ririhau, hei tauira, ki ngā mahi a Hapani ki Haina.[4]  I te nui haere tonu te wehi ki Hapani.  Ko te kaupapa wawao o te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa “was based on the assumption that Japan would attack”; ka tīmata te pakanga ki Uropi i te tau 1939, ka whakaritea āna hōia mō te whawhai, engari, ka rapuhia hoki he whakaaetanga kia whakahaumarutia te motu e te tauā moana o Piritene.[5]

 

Te haerenga a Rātana ki Hapani i te tau 1924.

Ko te tino take i haere ai a Rātana ki tāwāhi he tāpae i tētahi petihana ki a Kīngi Hōri V kia whakamanahia te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia whakaeatia hoki ngā nawe o ngā raupatu o ngā Pakanga o Niu Tīreni, engari i tiki.  E pērā ana hoki te League of Nations ki Geneva, i whakamatau ai tāna rōpū ki te tuku i tā rātou pukapuka-inoi ki reira.[6]  I haere hoki he kapa haka ki Rānana i te taha o Rātana, ki te haka i te Whakakitenga Nui o te Emepaea o Piritene.  I a rātou e hoki mai ana ki Āotearoa, ka toro atu a Rātana mā ki Hapani, i pōwhiritia mai ai, i manaakitia mai ai, e tētahi pīhopa Hapanihi, ko Jūji Nakada tōna ingoa.  I a rātou i reira, ka whakangahau te kapa haka i ngā tāngata Hapanihi.[7]  E kīa ana hoki, ka toro atu a Rātana i te kīngi o Hapani ki te whakaora ā-wairua i tōna mate.[8]

Kua mārama nei, ki a Rātana, he āhua rite te iwi, te reo, me ngā tikanga o Hapani ki ō te Māori, ā, ka rongo ia i te hononga pono, ā-wairua, ā-whakapono hoki, ki te pīhopa Hapanihi; he ōrite ō rāua whakapono, arā, nō ngā Hūrai o te Paipera ō rāua ake iwi.[9]  I haere mai he rangatahi Hapanihi, ko Kito Hireshi tōna ingoa, ki Aotearoa i te taha o Rātana; ā, i āhua roa tōna noho ki Rātana Pā.[10]  Engari, i te hokinga o Rātana ki Aotearoa, ka whakapaea e ngā niupepa āna mahi ki Hāpani, me te pāiri mō tōna piripono ki Aotearoa me te Emepaea o Piritene.

Ko te wā tēnei i te karanga a Rātana ki āna tāngata kia tū he Hāhi tūturu mō rātou.  I āna kaiwhakarite e kawe ana i te kawenata o te Hāhi ki ngā pito katoa o te motu i te tau 1925, ka kaha rawa pea tā rātou whakamoemiti i te hononga o te Māori me te Hapanihi.  E ai ki ngā niupepa, ka mea atu tētahi ki a Arawa, i Rotorua, “Ratana has married the Maori race to the Japanese race, and their salvation now lies in the hands of Japan.”[11]  Ka tuhi reta hoki ētahi rangatira o Whanganui-ki-Runga, e whakanonoi ana, e pērā ana ngā kupu i kōrerotia ki a rātou, arā, kua hangaia he whakaaetanga e Rātana me Hapani, ā, ko ngā Māori e whakapeka ana ki te haina i te kawenata, will be forced to serve against the Maori interests in the coming war, whereby Japan will restore the Maori lands.”[12]

He tere rawa atu te hekeretari a Rātana, a Pita Moko, ki te whakakore i aua whakapae, e kī ana, he take whakapono anake ō tā rātou mīhana ki Hapani, ā, Ratana has never made nor suggested a political or national alliance with Japan, and he repudiates the reported statements made at Rotorua.”[13]  I tētahi uiuinga niupepa, ka mea hoki a Rātana, “the allegations in regard to the visit to Japan were hardly worth referring to, as the Government had received information that there was no truth in them.”[14]  

 

Te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao.

I whai hua te taha tōrangapū o Rātana i te tekautau 1930, arā, i te pōtitanga o 1938, ka toru ngā tūru pāremata i riro i a rātou.  Mai i te tau 1935, nō te Rōpū Reipa hoki aua mema Rātana, ā, i te matenga o Rātana i ngā marama tōmua o te pakanga, tokomaha ngā tāngata o te kāwanatanga i tae atu ki te tangihanga.  I Tīhema 1940, ka whakatūria he mema Rātana/Reipa, a Parāire Paikea, hei mema o te Kaunihera Nui o te kāwanatanga; kāore e kore, nā konei i piri haere ai ngā tāngata Rātana ki te kāwanatanga.  I te marama ki muri,

A pledge to support the war effort and the Government and also to support the Home Guard movement was given by the Ratana Maoris after they had been addressed by Mr. Paikea, representative of the Maori race on the Executive Council, during his first official visit to Ratana pa.[15] 

Mai i te tau 1942, ko Paikea te upoko o te Māori War Effort Organisation, e whakahaere ana i te whakahoia i ngā Māori, me te kimi tāngata mō ngā ahumahi whakahirahira.

Engari, i puta mai te āwangawanga Pākehā i mua i te pakanga.  I Hune 1939, i tētahi minita Pākehā, he koroua, e hararei ana ki tōna pāriha o mua, ka rīpoata ia, kua rangona ngā kupu a tētahi tangata o taua pāriha, “[who] had seen certain pamphlets that were circulated amongst the Natives, telling them that if the Japanese were to land at . . . that they were welcome them and treat them as brothers,” ā, “he thought it might be the work of Ratana.”[16]  I whakakorea tēnei e tērā atu Pākehā, engari, ka kī ia, i a rātou ko te minita e kōrerorero ana, ka mea mai tāna wahine, kua rangona e ia he koroua Māori e kōrero ana mō ngā Māori e āwhina ana i ngā Hāpanihi, engari, kīhai rāua ko tāna tāne i whakapono ki aua kupu.[17]  He maha ngā mahi uiui a te pirihimana o taua kāinga, me te rapurapu pārongo hoki, engari, ka mea atu te Tumuaki Pirihimana ki te Komihana Pirihimana, “There appears to be no truth in the information received”.  Ā, ka tukuna aua kupu ki te Tumuaki o te Tauā o Aotearoa.[18]

I whakatūria te Ope Kāinga (Home Guard) o Aotearoa i Ākuhata 1940, arā, i mua i te urunga o Hapani ki roto i te pakanga. I rīpoata he haihana i ōna māharahara mō ngā tāngata Māori o te Ope Kāinga, nā te mea, kua mea tōna hoa ki a ia, ko ngā karakia Rātana he “nothing more than hot beds of disloyalty and open to support our enemies, particularly the one we think of most in the East. . . . At present I feel so strongly about it that I would not have any Maori in a key position for fear of treachery.”[19]    I tukuna tēnei ki te Komihana Pirihimana, engari, kīhai i tirohia.

I nui haere te ngākau āwangawanga o Aotearoa mai i Tīhema 1941.[20]  He tata kē a Hapani i Ūropi, ā, i Āwherika-ki-te-Raki ō tātou hōia.  Ka piki te kohuku o ētahi tāngata, ā, ngā mahi tirotiro a te kāwanatanga.  Ka rangitahi te putanga mai anō o ngā whakapae o 1924 mō Rātana me Hapani i roto i ngā niupepa i te tau 1942, engari tērā ētahi ketuketutanga huna i mahia e te kāwanatanga

I ara tūmatanui te take nei i tētahi tangihanga i kōrero ai a Bob Tūtaki (he kaihautu uniana ia) mō “the question of loyalty and the alleged want of loyalty on the part of a certain section of Ratana people.”  Ka tū he rangatira nō Taupō, a Hori Mautaranui, ki te whakakore i taua whakapae. “In his own village all able-bodied men had gone to the front.  Some had gone through Greece, Crete and Libya, and some were wounded, others prisoners of war.”  Ahakoa tata ki te 70 ōna tau, kua uru te rangatira nei ki roto i te Ope Kāinga.  I kōrero hoki te Pīhopa Māori o te Hāhi Mihinare mō te take nei, me te whakahua anō i ngā whakapae o 1925, engari, ka mea ia, “we hope this statement represents the spirit of the Ratana movement as a whole”.[21]  Kīhai te take i kitea anō i roto i ngā niupepa, engari, e ai ki tētahi kōrero Rātana, i Māehe 1942, ka tango a Tokouru Rātana (ko tā te poropiti tama, ko te mema Māori o te Hauāuru hoki ia) i ngā taonga Hapanihi i Rātana Pā i mua i te taenga mai o ētahi āpiha tauā kua haere mai ki te tirotiro i te mahi tahi a te rōpu Rātana me Hapani.[22]

Ka kitea hoki te tino tino mānakanaka o te iwi Pākehā i roto i ngā kōnae huna o te kāwanatanga, e kōrerotia nei ngā mahi o mua a Rātana mā ki Hapani, me te āta tirotiro a te kāwanatanga i ngā kāinga Māori.  Hei tauira, i tuhi he kaitiaki whare-rama ki ōna rangatira, e kī ana, kīhai ia i whakapono ki te piripono o āna kaimahi Māori.

Seemingly, years ago, before Ratana died, he visited Japan and the high officials there made a pact with him that if the Maoris would help them when the time came they would come to New Zealand, turn the British out, and give the land back to the maoris.  These people actually believe this, and the change in these people since Japan struck is remarkable.  . . .  I am not getting the sleep I ought to have because I have to keep a close watch on them. I have no evidence of this; they are careful not to say anything to me, but I have been 7 years amongst these Maoris here, and by a word let drop now and again and when I saw the change when Japan came in I am certain that in the event of an invasion any of these Ratana Maoris would help the enemy.[23]

I haere a Paikea ki reira tirotiro ai. E ai ki tāna, “although there had been some excitement anong the Maori staff on the outbreak of hostilities with Japan, their actual loyalty cannot in any way be questioned.”[24]

I puta mai anō te take o te piripono Māori i roto i te Ope Kāinga.  I rīpoata te kaingārahu o tētahi rohe ki te toihau o te Ope Kāinga, “Shortly after the Home Guard was formed, it was evident that considerable activity was going on amongst the Maoris in connection with the Ratana Movement, and a certain amount of disloyalty appeared to exist.”[25]  Engari, kāore he aha kei roto i taua kōnae hei tautoko i āna kupu.  E pā ana te nuinga o ngā reta ki ngā Māori e rapu ana kia whakatūria he ope Māori me ō rātou ake āpiha Māori.  Ko te āhua nei, i whakaarohia e ngā āpiha Pākehā, ehara tēnei i te piripono rawaka.

He nui hoki te māharahara mō ngā waka-whakatakere me ngā manuao o te hoariri e rere ana mā ngā huarahi o te moana, ā, ki ngā wāhi mokemoke.  Inara hoki a Wharekauri.  Nā te pāmamao i rerekē ai te wawao o aua motu ki tō Aotearoa, nā konei he maha ngā rangahau i mahia mō ngā motu me ngā tāngata.  Hei tauira, i whakaaro te minita o reira “that from 25% to 35% of the inhabitants, particularly those of Portuguese, German and Maori descent can be regarded as apathetic towards Britain.”[26]  E ai ki te rīpoata a tētahi atu tangata, ko ētahi “[were] of doubtful loyalty . . . descended from deserters from whaling ships, also Maoris of the Ratana persuasion.”[27]  I te tau 1942, ka tuhia e tētahi āpiha he rīpoata roa mō te wawao o Wharekauri; ā, ka āhua tūpato ia ki ngā Māori katoa.  I mea mai ia, ahakoa ka hāpai ētahi i te kaupapa o te mahi-tahi me ngā Hapanihi, tokoiti ngā tāngata ka āta āwhina i te whakaekenga Hapanihi. “The general feeling of the Natives is ‘if the Japs. come, give them what they want in the hope that they will go away in peace.’”[28]  Pērā me ērā atu kōnae, kāore he aha kei roto i te rīpoata hei tautoko i ngā whakapae mō te whanonga kaikaiwaiū.

 

 He kupu whakatepe

I te tau 1924, nā te māharahara o Aotearoa ki te pikinga o te mana o Hapani i pōhēhētia ai ngā take o te haerenga a Rātana ki taua motu, me āna kupu mō tōna hononga ā-wairua ki ngā Karaitiana Hapanihi.  Engari, kāore he pono nō ngā kupu whakapae, ā, nāwai rā, ka warewaretia.  I kaha haere te taha tōrangapū o te rōpū Rātana i te tekautau 1930, ā, he wāhanga rātou nō te rōpū Reipa i kāwana i Aotearoa mai i 1935 ki 1949.

Nā te pakanga i toko ake ai he āwangawanga; me te aha, ka tupu he māharahara ki ngā rōpū kore-piripono i roto i te motu.  I kaha haere te whakaaro nei i te horonga o Hingapoa, me te whakaenga mai o ngā Hapanihi ki te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ā, ka puta anō ngā whakapae o te tekautau 1920 mō te kaikaiwaiūtanga o Rātana.  Nā te ngākau kohuki nei i nui haere ai te āta titiro ki ngā kāinga Māori.  E kitea ana te nuinga o ēnei mahi i te tau 1942, i te wā i tūpato rawa atu ai te iwi ki te whakaeke mai o ngā Hapanihi.  I muri i ngā wikitōria ā-manuao o ngā Marikena ki te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ka whakaarohia kāore he whakaekenga e tinga ana.  Nā konei, ka iti haere te āwangawanga, ā, kāore aua whakapae mō te rōpū Rātana i rangona ano.

 

Whakaahua: ko te kapa haka i haere ki tāwāhi i te tau 1924 i te taha o Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana. Tesla Studios:  Negatives of Wanganui and district taken by Alfred Martin, Frank Denton and Mark Lampe (Tesla Studios). Nama: 1/1-017026-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Te Whanganui-a-Tara, Aotearoa. /records/22890216

 

 

[1] Jaroslav Valkoun, “Great Britain, the Dominions and Their Position on Japan in the 1920s and Early 1930s”, Prague Papers on the History of International Relations 2/2017. https://sites.ff.cuni.cz/praguepapers/wp-content/uploads/sites/16/2017/11/Jaroslav_Valkoun_32-46.pdf (he mea tītiro 20 Hune 2021); Ian H. Nish, Alliance in Decline: A Study of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1908-23, Bloomsbury: London, 2012, wh. 383;  Roberta Allbert Dayer, “The British War Debts to the United States and the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 1920-1923”, Pacific Historical Review , 45:4 (1976): 569-595.

[2] Roger Openshaw, “The Highest Expression of Devotion: New Zealand Primary‐ Schools and Patriotic Zeal during the Early 1920s”, History of Education, 9:4 (1980): 337.

[3] David Littlewood, “The Debates of the Past’: New Zealand’s First Labour

Government and the Introduction of Conscription in 1940”, War & Society, 39:4 (2020): 278.  Tirohia hoki, Valkoun, wh.41.

[4] Littlewood, wh.277.

[5] L. K. Munro, “New Zealand and the New Pacific” Foreign Affairs, 31:4 (1953): 641-2; Littlewood, wh.282.

[6] Angela Ballara. “Rātana, Tahupōtiki Wiremu - Ratana, Tahupotiki Wiremu”, Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, (1996). Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/3r4/ratana-tahupotiki-wiremu (He mea titiro 20 Hune 2021).

[7] Hei tauira, tirohia New Zealand Herald, 23/12/1924: 13; Evening Post, 26/12/1924: 6; New Zealand Times, 27/12/1924: 5.

[8] Keith Newman, Ratana Revisited: An Unfinished Legacy, Auckland: Reed, 2006, wh. 143.

[9] Aike P. Rots, “Christian Millenarianism and Nationalism in Pre-War Japan: Nakada Jūji’s Politics of Identity”, i roto i Toru Aoyama (ētita), Politics, Identity and Conflict: Proceedings of the Postgraduate Workshop, Leiden University, 28 August 2009,  Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 2010, wh. 50-55; Bronwyn Elsmore, Like Them That Dream: The Maori and the Old Testament, Auckland: Libro International, 2011, wh. 194-5.

[10] New Zealand Times, 27/12/1924: 5; Evening Star, 2/4/1925: 6.

[11] Stratford Evening Post, 16/1/1925: 2.

[12] Press, 20/1/1925: 10.

[13] Stratford Evening Post, 16/1/1925: 2.

[14] Evening Star, 2/4/1925: 6.

[15] Evening Post, 29/1/ 1941: 9.

[16] Statement of . . . made at Police Station, . . ., 10/6/1939. Intelligence -  Japanese Activities Among Maoris. Nama: AD11 17, Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga, Te Whanganui-a-Tara. [Kua murua ngā ingoa.]

[17] Statement of . . . made at Police Station, . . ., 29/6/1939. Intelligence -  Japanese Activities Among Maoris.

[18] Report of Constable . . ., Police Station, . . . 3/7/1939; Inspector of Police to Commissioner of Police, 4/7/1939; Reta, Commissioner of Police ki te Chief of General Staff, 5/7/1939, Intelligence -  Japanese Activities Among Maoris.

[19] Reta Sgt. . . . ki a . . . , 14/2/1941, Intelligence -  Japanese Activities Among Maoris.

[20] He kōnae i mua nō te Tauarangi o Aotearoa, ko “Intelligence Mauris [sic] Pro. Japanese (Ratana Element Etc.)” te ingoa. Ko te mea whakarapa, nō te whakanekenga o ngā rauemi RNZAF ki Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga, ka whakangaromia taua kōnae.

[21] Manawatu Times, 21/2/1942: 6.

[22] Newman, Ratana Revisited, wh. 154-5.

[23] Reta, . . . ki te Hekeretari, Marine Department, 12/1/1942. War with Japan — Attitude of Maoris, 1941-1942, Nama: M12W1749 6, Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga, Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

[24] Reta, P.K. Paikea ki a R. Semple, Minister of Marine, 18/2/1942, War with Japan — Attitude of Maoris, 1941-1942.

[25] Reta, Group Director, . . .  Group Home Guard, . . .  ki te Director General, Home Guard Headquarters, 8/1/1942.

[26] Reta, Naval Officer-in-Charge, Lyttelton ki te Director of Naval Intelligence, 16/4/1942. Defence of Pacific – Chatham Islands – Report of Security Intelligence Bureau, June 1942. Nama: EA1 585, Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga, Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

[27] Reta, Lieut.Commander, RN ki te Director of Naval Intelligence, 23/4/1942. Defence of Pacific – Chatham Islands.

[28] The Chatham Islands [Rīpoata], Defence of Pacific – Chatham Islands.

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