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Te Urutā ki Pēwhairangi, 1941

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Lachy Paterson
06 Pipiri, 2020

E kīa ana, ka heipū pea tēnei momo urutā o nāianei, ko te mate korona, i ia kotahi rau tau, i ia kotahi rau tau, engari, ka kitea ngā tini āmaimai, ngā tini rāhui e puta mai ana i ngā urutā i roto i te hītori o Niu Tīreni nei. Ā, i whakapā kino ēnei mate ki te iwi Māori.[1]

 

Nō nā noa nei i tuhi ai te ihumanea Māori, ko Tina Ngata, mō te hāngai o aua urutā o mua ki ā Ngāi Māori mahi o nāianei kia aukatihia te mate korona i ō rātou kāinga.[2]  Engari, ko te tino wehi o te iwi Pākehā o mua, kei pāngia rātou e ngā mate mai i ngā kāinga Māori.  Ki te whakaaro Pākehā, ko te Māori te hononga kahakore o te mekameka i tiakina ai te hauora o te motu, arā, nā ngā whare pūwhāwhā, nā te noho kikī, nā tō rātou ngoikore “to take up sanitary matters on most occasions”,[3] nā ā rātou tikanga i hōrapa ai ēnei mate kino.[4] Heoi, nā te pōhara, nā te kore ratonga rānei, kīhai te mahi a te Māori i āhei ki ngā ratonga hauora o te motu; nā konei i pāngia kahatia ai rātou e ngā urutā.

 

Kua rangona tēnei āmaimai o mua i roto i ngā whakahē a Ngāi Māori o nāia tata nei mō tā te kāwanatanga whakawhāiti i te tokomaha e whakaaetia ana kia haere ki ngā hui, i kore ai e taea pai ngā tangihanga o te wā rāhui nei.  I tautokona te tikanga aukati nei a te Kāwanatanga e te Pirimia tuarua, e Winston Peters, e kī ana, tērā “a Polynesian undertaker … who [stated] how difficult in the Pasifika and Māori setting it was to keep people apart in that most difficult emotional moment… at a tangi or a funeral”.[5] 

 

Nā, he taumaha atu pea te whakapā o ngā tikanga ā-kāwana ki ētahi rōpū, ki ētahi iwi rānei, engari, ka tūpato te kāwanatanga kei whakapaea he kaikiri āna tikanga.  Engari, ki tō te Māori whakaaro, nā ngā kupu kau o ngā tikanga ā-mate-korona e pā ana ki te mana o ngā pirihimana ki te uru noa ki runga marae i tukia pūtia ai rātou e te kāwanatanga.[6] 

 

I ngā rā o mua, ka horipū kē ngā kupu o ngā whakahau ā-kāwanatanga. Hei tauira, nā tētahi  urutā mate koropukaputa [smallpox] “which broke out amongst the Maoris north of Auckland in May, 1913, and which extended to Marsden, Kaipara, Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Thames, and Waikato”,[7] i puta mai ai he tikanga i raro i te Public Health Act hei whakamutu i te hāereere o ngā tāngata Māori, tae atu ki ngā tāngata i waho o ngā takiwā e pāngia ana.[8]  Ka tūpono he mate taipō [typhoid] i te tau 1929, ka tuhia e te tākuta Māori, e Tūtere Wīrepa he tohutohu hei tīni i ngā tikanga Māori, kia ora ai te iwi.[9]

 

Kei tēnei kōrero he āta titiro ki tētahi urutā i whakapā mai ki ngā Māori o tētahi takiwā i te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua, arā, he urutā kiriuhi uakakā ā-tuaiwi [spinal meningitis/cerebro-spinal meningitis] i pāngia ai ngā kāinga o Pēwhairangi i te tau 1941. He mate hōrapa tēnei momo mate, engari, i te nuinga o te wā, ka rite te whakapā mai ki ngā iwi katoa, Pākehā mai, Māori mai.[10]  Ahakoa i tētahi takiwā anake te urutā nei, he āhua rite ki te mate e rarua nei tātou ināianei.

 

Katia ana ngā kura me ētahi whare nunui, akiakina ana ngā mātua kia noho rāhui ā rātou tamariki, whakamutua ana ētahi hui me ngā haerenga a ngā hōia, whakahaua ana ngā tāngata kia “stay put”, kia whakamahia ngā aikiha, ā, “talking directly into people’s face should be avoided”.  Nā te mānukanuka nui ki taua takiwā, ka tarai a Dr Frengley o te Hōhipera o Kawakawa ki te whakarata i te iwi, e mea ana “there was no reason … for people to get ‘meninjitters’”.[11]

 

He tino mate tēnei momo kiriuhi uakakā e hemo rawa nei ētahi tāngata, engari (he rerekē ki nāianei) he rongoa mīharo, he rongoā hou, tō ngā tākuta o te tekautau 1940, ko sulphapyradine te ingoa. He rongoā patu-huakita [anti-bacterial] tēnei, ko te ingoa kārangaranga ko “693”. He āhua pai tēnei rongoā mehemea kua rongoatia tōmuatia te tūroro.[12]

 

I te marama o Hune, 1940, ka whakatūria a Dr G.O.L. Dempster hei Āpiha Tākuta o te Hauora [Medical Officer of Health] o te Tai Tokerau.[13] E whānui ana tōna mana e pā ana ki te hauora o te hapori, tae atu ki tōna tūranga hei Tumuaki o ngā Kauinhera Māori o te Tai Tokerau.[14]

 

I te 22 o Āperira, 1941, nā te Northern Advocate he rīpoata, tokowhitu ngā tūroro o Moerewa, o Kawakawa, o Taumarere, o Akarema hoki, i kawea ki te Hōhipera o Kawakawa.  Tokotoru ngā tūpāpaku; he tamaiti Māori tētahi, he tamaiti Pākehā tētahi, he pakeke Pākehā tētahi.  E ai ki te niupepa nei,  “This is believed to be the first time this drug [693] has been used in New Zealand for the treatment of spinal meningitis”.

 

I te hihiko a Dempster, e whakarāhui ana i ngā whānau o ngā tūroro.  I āta tirotiro ia i te take o te mate, ā, ka kitea “practically all cases had been traced to a contact with one Maori home.”[15]  Ao ake, ka pānuihia e ia, “all Maori gatherings, meetings, huis and tangis within the Northland Health District are hereby prohibited until further notice.”  Arā, tae atu ki Mangonui, ki Hokianga, ki Whangaroa, ki Pēwhairangi, ki Whangarei, ki Hobson, ki Ōtamatea hoki.[16]

 

Ahakoa ka whakaaro a Dempster kua whakataiepatia te mate nei, ka kati ia i ngā kura e rima o Moerewa.[17]  Engari, i te puta mai he tūroro kē i te marama o Mei.  Kātahi ka katia ngā kura katoa o te Tai Tokerau, me ngā hīkoinga me ngā whakatūtū o ngā hōia.  Ahakoa i whakamutua ngā hui Māori, ka whakaaetia kia haere noa, kia hui hoki ērā atu rōpū.[18] 

 

I te āwangawanga rawa te iwi Pākehā.  Ka rīpoata te niupepa mō “the arrival of a truck load of Maoris to attend the Kaikohe picture theatre on Saturday night. These Maoris it is alleged parked their truck on the outskirts of the town and walked in to attend the theatre screening which was fully patronised.”[19]  Ka whakaaro hoki ētahi, kāore ngā tikanga e whakaritea tikatia ana mō ngā tāngata katoa. Ko te kupu riri a tētahi,  “You close the churches but leave the den of the devil [arā, pāparakāuta] open for natives to gather”.  Engari, kua waiho mā ia pāriha mā ia pāriha e whakatau, ka tuwhera tō rātou ake whare karakia, kāore rānei.[20]

 

I te marama o Mei, ka hāmenetia he “highly respected Maori councillor” nō Kohukohu mō tāna wāwāhi i te katinga o ngā tangihanga.  Tokorua āna tamāhine kua hemo rawa i te 29, i te 30 hoki o Āperira, ā, i te anga ia kia nehua rāua i Pawarenga. I meatia i roto i te kōti, “written notice [o te katinga] was sent to Maori councillors in the north, including the defendant.”  Ka kī hoki te Northern Advocate, kīhai te pāpā i kōtitia mō te nehu kore kāwhena o tētahi o ngā tūpāpaku i runga i te kore rākau.[21]

 

A gathering of about 50 natives of both sexes attended the hui, and Constable McNutt warned [te matua] that the tangi should be terminated so that the people could return to their own settlements.

 

I whakī te pāpā, ka whakamatau ia “to send the people away but they insisted upon carying [sic] out the Maori custom of staying with the dead.” Nā tōna rōia: “Being overwrought at the loss of two favourite daughters, he had been sidetracked from his original intentions.” 

 

Ahakoa ka tuku aroha te kaiwhakawā rātou ko ngā pirihimana ko te Āpiha Tākuta ki te pāpā nei, ka whakatau te kaiwhakawā, me whakatauira te matua, nā te mea, “the Maoris apparently don’t realise the seriousness of this charge”.  E taea ana te £200 te tuku hei whaina, engari, ka £10 anake te whiu i utaina e te kaiwhakawā.[22]

 

Ka kitea tonutia he kēhi kiriuhi uakakā. He tamariki, he rangatahi Māori te nuinga, ā, i te hōrapa te mate ki kāinga kē.[23] I te putanga mai o tētahi kēhi ki Kerikeri, i muri i te toronga o te tangata ki Moerewa, ka inoi atu te Poari Kura o Kerikeri ki a Dempster,

 

Would it not be better to close all the picture theatres in the district in the meantime, as natives from Moerewa area are trying to enter our local theatre every time a picture is shown.[24]

 

E rua ngā wiki kāore he kēhi hou.  Ka hikina e Dempster ngā tikanga aukati, tae atu ki ngā hui Māori, i waenga i te marama o Hune.[25]  Engari, kīhai i roa, ka puta anō te mate, ā, ka whakaritea anō te katinga o ngā hui Māori, mai i te 7 ki te 21 o Hūrae.[26]  

 

Memeha rawa te urutā kiriuhi uakakā, engari, ka tāmutumutu tonu te putanga mai o ngā kēhi hou tae atu ki te tau 1942.[27]  Kāore e taea te kī te tokomaha o ngā tūroro katoa; kīhai pea ētahi i rīpoatatia. Engari e mārama ana, i kino kē te mate nei mō ngā tamariki Māori, ā, ka hemo rawa ētahi.

 

Engari, ehara te kiriuhi uakakā i te kino rawa atu o ngā mate mō te iwi Māori o taua wā.  Hei tauira, i te marama o Oketopa 1941, i kitea ai ngā kēhi e 29 o ngā tūroro Māori kua pāngia e te mate kohi [tuberculosis] i te Tai Tokerau.  He mate rerekē, he mate hou te urutā kiriuhi uakakā; kua roa kē te wā i pāngia ai te iwi e te mate kohi, ā, kua waia te iwi Pākehā ki taua mate.  Heoi, ka tū te whakautu a te Āpiha Tākuta ki te kiriuhi uakakā i runga i tōna whakaaro he mate tēnei nō te Māori, ā, ka tukuna pea e te Māori ki a rātou, ki ā rātou tamariki hoki.

 

I te urutā nei o te tau 1941, ka whakahāngaitia ētahi tikanga aukati ki ngā Māori anake. Kīhai i whakahaua kia katia ngā whare karakia me ngā pāparakāuta, engari, ko te whakaaro o te Āpiha Tākuta o te Kāwanantanga, ka hōrapa pea te mate nei mai i ngā hui Māori, mai i ngā tikanga hoki o aua hui.  I pēnei te tau 2020 nei i ngana ai te kāwanatanga kia whakawhāititia ngā hui Māori, me ngā tangihanga.  He rite ngā take, ā, kīhai te kāwanatanga i whakapono ka āhei te iwi Māori ki te āta whakahaere i ā rātou hui kia kore ai e pāngia e te mate korona.  Engari, nā te kaha whakahē a te iwi Māori i puta kē ai te whakaaro o te kāwanatanga.  Ahakoa he mate rerekē te urutā kiriuhi uakakā o Pēwhairangi ki te mate korona o nāianei, ka rangona ngā oro o ngā rā o mua i roto i te pēheatanga o tēnei wā.

 

Whakaahua: Northern Advocate,  13 Mei 1941, wh. 7.

 

[1] Hei tauira te mate rewharewha o 1918. Tirohia Jeanette King, “Ko te mate urutā – ka mua, ka muri”, Te Aotuhi: the Aotahi blog, (11 Mei, 2020) https://blogs.canterbury.ac.nz/aotahi/2020/05/11/ko-te-mate-uruta/ (he mea titiro i te 29 Mei, 2020)

[2] Tina Ngata, “COVID-19 and the Māori duty to protect”, The Overland (7/5/2020) https://overland.org.au/2020/05/covid-19-and-the-maori-duty-to-protect/ (he mea titiro i te 28 Mei, 2020)

[3] “Public Health and Hospitals and Charitable Aid: Report Thereon by the Inspector-General of Hospitals and Charitable Institutions and Chief Health Officer”, Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives [AJHR], H-13, 1914, wh.60.

[4]Thames Star, 25 Ākuhata 1928, wh.5.

[5] Te Pāremata o Aotearoa, “Oral Questions to Ministers (continued)”, Hansard Debates, https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/hansard-debates/rhr/combined/HansDeb_20200512_20200512_10 (he mea titiro i te 27 May 2020).

[6] Tirohia te Covid-19 Public Health Response Bill, http://www.legislation.govt.nz/bill/government/2020/0246/latest/LMS344194.html; Radio New Zealand, https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/te-manu-korihi/416562/concerns-over-police-powers-to-search-marae-under-new-enforcement-legislation (he mea titiro i te 28 Mei 2020).

[7] AJHR, H-13, 1914, wh.1.

[8] AJHR H-13, 1914, wh.33. Hei tauira, tirohia te pānuitanga whakamutu haere i  Woodville Examiner, 1 Ākuhata 1913: 4.

[9] E ai ki Wīrepa, ina toro atu te tangata i te tūroro taipō, me kaua e kihi, e hongi, ā, me horoi ngā ringaringa i muri i te hāriru. Te Toa Takitini, 1 Māehe 1929: 950.

[10] Hei tauira, tērā tētahi urutā whānui i te tau 1942; e 852 Pākehā i pāngia, 111 ngā tūpāpaku, engari e 80 anake ngā Māori i pāinga, e ono i hemo rawa.  “Department of Health Annual Report.” AJHR, 1943, H-31, wh.2.

[11] Northern Advocate, 5 Mei 1941: 6.

[12] John E. Lesch, The First Miracle Drugs: How the Sulfa Drugs Transformed Medicine, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, wh.187-8.  I muri, ka whakamahia te rongoā Penicillin hei rongoā i te kiriuhi uakakā, ā, kua wātea te wero rongoā mai i te tau 1987. Ananya Mandal, History of Meningitis, https://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Meningitis.aspx, (he mea titiro i te 20 Mei 2020; Martin G Myers, “The History of Vaccine Development and the Diseases Vaccines Prevent” i roto i Gregg N. Milligan, Alan D. T. Barrett (ētita), Vaccinology: An Essential Guide (Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2015) wh.20.

[13] Northern Advocate, 18 Hune 1940: 4.

[14] he mea whakatū ēnei komiti i te tau 1900, hei whakahaere i ngā kāinga Māori.  He tino take te hauora. Engari, i te wā o te Pākehā tuarua, kua tata ngā komiti te ngaro. Tirohia Northern Advocate, 13 Hepetema 1940: 3. Kātahi a Dempster ka tae ki te Tai Tokerau, ka whakahaumanu ia i te Pewhairangi District Maori Council.  “Chief among the business dealt with was the confirmation by the council of all the village committees under its control.”

[15] Northern Advocate, 22 Āperira 1941: 4.

[16] Northern Advocate, 23 Āperira 1941: 4.

[17] Northern Advocate, 23 Āperira 1941: 4, 6.

[18] Northern Advocate, 29 Āperira 1941:6; 1 Mei 1941: 4; 5 Mei 1941: 6; 6 Mei 1941: 4; 8 Mei 1941:4, 6; 9 Mei 1941: 6; 12 Mei 1941: 6.

[19] Northern Advocate, 5 Mei 1941: 6

[20] Northern Advocate, 9 Hune 1941: 2

[21] Northern Advocate, 14 Mei 1941: 9.

[22] Northern Advocate, 14 Mei 1941: 9.

[23] Northern Advocate, 21 Mei 1941: 6; 23 Mei 1941: 4; 2 Hune 1941:4; 3 Hune 1941: 4.

[24] Northern Advocate, 3 Hune 1941: 4.

[25] Northern Advocate, 13 Hune 1941: 1.; 16 Hune 1941: 1; 17 Hune 1941: 6.

[26] Northern Advocate, 3 Hūrae 1941: 4; 7 Hūrae 1941: 1; 22 Hūrae 1941: 1, 4.

[27] Northern Advocate, 1 Hepetema 1941: 4; 10 Hepetema 1941: 4; 24 Oketopa 1941: 4; 25 Oketopa 1941: 4; 6 Noema 1941: 4; 13 Noema 1941: 2; 17 Noema 1941: 4; 3 Hānuere 1942: 2; 23 Mei 1942: 2.

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