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He Whare mō ngā Kaimahi Māori ki Pukekohe

Pukekohe dwellings 1948a
Maori Home Front Blog Avatar
Lachy Paterson
26 Poutūterangi, 2021

E hia kē mai ngā tau kua tū te take whare, arā te kore-whare, hei tino mamae mō Aotearoa?  E tinga anō, kāore e taea e te kāwanatanga o nāianei te whakapai.  E āhua pērā ana tō nāianei āhuatanga ki te take whare o ngā kaimahi Māori ki ngā māra mākete o Pukekohe i mua, i waenga, i muri hoki o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao.  I kitea ngā raruraru, ka maha rawa ngā kupu i kōrerotia . . . me te kete kainga e riringi ana ki te pari.

E 50 pea ngā kiromita o Pukekohe atu ki Tāmaki-makaurau. Nā te hokonga atu o ngā māra o te Tāmaki-makaurau, nā te hanganga hoki o te rerewē me ngā rori papai, ka ara a Pukekohe hei tino rohe ki te whakatipu huawhenua.[1]  He uaua te mahi nei ki ngā māra.  Nō ngā Pākehā te nuinga o whenua, engari, i rīhitia ētahi māra ki ngā Iniana i runga i ngā kirimana poto, ko Ngāi Māori e mahi ana ki ngā pātiki.[2]  He rawe a Pukekohe Hill mō ngā huawhenua, arā ko te auheke e aro atu ana ki te raki, ā, ka taea e ngā kaiwhakatipu ngā kai te tuku atu ki Tāmaki-makaurau puta noa te tau.

Ahakoa he kaimahi ētahi Māori mō te arawheu anake, i noho tūturu ētahi whānau.  I mahi rātou ki tēnā māra, ki tēnā māra; he kirimana kē mō tēnā pātiki, mō tēnā pātiki.  He kino te āhua o te nuinga o ō rātou whare; he pai pea mō te raumati, engari, ehara i te tika mō te tau katoa.   I pērā hoki ētahi atu kāinga e tata ana ki Tāmaki-makaurau, arā, ko Māngere, ko Panmure, me Tāmaki hoki.[3]

Tua atu i te āhua kino o te noho, kīhai i whakaaetia te tokomaha o ngā Māori (e 500 pea ki te whakaaro o te Mea i te tau 1944); tokohia ngā mea tūturu, ngā mea rānei e tae mai ana mō te wā poto; nō hea rānei rātou.  He maha ngā tau kua riro atu te rohe Franklin i te Pākehā, ā, i kīa, kāore he “tāngata whenua” e noho ana ki reira.  E ai ki tētahi āpiha o te Tari Māori, i te tae mai te nuinga o ngā kaimahi mō te wā poto, engari i haere rātou mai i Hauraki, i Rotorua me Waiariki, i Te Taitokerau, i Waikato me te Rohe Pōtae hoki.  E ai ki ētahi atu, nō Te Taitokerau te nuinga.  Engari anō, kāore he kāinga tūturu, kāore he pā “where tribal control could be exerted!”[4]   Ki a Waka Clarke, e kōrero ana ki te Minita Māori i te tau 1944, he koata noa iho te iwi heke, engari, ka hoki te nuinga o ngā Māori o Te Taitokerau ki te kāinga i te wā hauhake kūmara.[5]  I tītiro pī ētahi o ngā kaikōrero, arā, he āhua kōaro ō rātou whakaaro.  E ai ki ngā ākonga tokorua nō te kura tākuta e rangahau ana i te tau 1948, he manene ngā kaimahi, “homeless, landless, illiterate people; the poorer types from many different tribes.”. . . “their only positive features being their ability to work under hard and adverse conditions”.[6]  

I te tau 1929, ka tū he komiti ā-paremata ki te tirotiro i te moe tāhae a ngā wāhine Māori me ngā kaiwhakatipu Hainamana, Iniana hoki, ā, ka whakamōhiotia te noho kino o ngā Māori ki Pukekohe i roto i tā rātou pūrongo.

The committee declares that at Pukekohe the accommodation provided for the Maoris is disgraceful. Overcrowding is prevalent and sanitary accommodation is most primitive. The general health of the Maoris was good, but living conditions must have a degrading effect.[7]

Ko te taunaki a tau komiti, kia tū he “strict control of the living conditions in market gardens”, mā te Tari Māori pea.  Engari, ehara aua momo whare i te pai mō te hauora Māori.  I te tau 1934, i te tirotirohanga a te korona i ngā matenga o ētahi tamariki Māori, ka mea ia, me whakatū “a hostel similar to that in Tuakau, where these unfortunate people can go”.[8]  I ātetetia tēnei tono e ngā Pākehā o Pukekohe, me te Akarana Maori Association.  E ai ki te Association, mehemea he whare noho, ka muia te rohe e ngā tini Māori, ka tonoa rānei he whare-noho ki wāhi kē.[9]  Heoi anō, ka hangaia kētia he whare-okioki i te tau 1938; kāore he moenga nō taua whare, engari, i wātea he rūma huihui me te wharepaku mō ngā Māori e toro ana ki te tāone.

Tokohia kē mai ngā tāngata e tirotiro ana, e rīpoata ana mō ngā āhuatanga o te noho o ngā Māori i aua tau, nō te Tari Hauora, nō te Tari Māori, nō te Tari Hanga Whare, nō ngā kaunihera ā-rohe, ngā tauira o te kura tākuta me ētahi atu.  Hei tauira tēnei, mai i te tirohanga a te Pukekohe Maori Women’s Association, i whakamāramatia e Mrs. A.G. Clark ki te Pirimia i te tau 1938.

She quoted the case of thirteen Maoris living in a shack of about 12 x 8 ft., the walls of which were of corrugated iron lined with sacks, and far from weatherproof, with one small window.  The fireplace in this dwelling could not be used as it had not been built for a home in the first place.  The cooking was done on two primus stoves and the water had to be carried  about 200 yards.  There were no facilities for washing or drying clothes.  In this particular home there was a child of 18 months with pneumonia after measles who had died since she had made an inspection of the houses a fortnight ago.  This was probably one of the worse cases but it was typical of the general discomfort on the Maoris as a whole.[10]

Nā ngā werawera o ngā kaimahi Māori te āhua tōnui o Pukekohe.  I te tau 1929, ka hui te Pukekohe Chamber of Commerce:

Mr M.G. Duffy stated that if the Maoris were shifted back to their pas, it would be detrimental to the growers and the business people. He added that he paid between £600 and £700 a year to Maoris and most of this money was spent in Pukekohe, while other growers paid away more than he did. If the Maoris were removed it would be difficult to obtain labour and consequently the growers would have to reduce the productive areas, which would mean there would be less produce, and less money for circulation in the town. No one wanted this to occur.[11]

Engari, kīhai te hunga whakatipu kai i pīrangi ki te whakarato i ngā whare papai mō ā rātou kaimahi.  I muri i tō rātou wini i te pōtitanga o 1935, ka tahuri te Pāti Reipa ki te titiro ki te āhua o ngā kāinga Māori.  Ko te hauora tētahi take, ko te hiahia hoki kia whakapākehātia te āhua o te noho Māori.[12]  I raro i te Native Housing Act 1935, ka waiho mā ngā whānau Māori e tuku he pīhi whenua, ā, mā te kāwanatanga he pūtea taurewa kia hangaia he whare.[13]  Engari, kīhai i taea e ngā Māori o Pukekohe; kāore ō rātou whenua. 

I te tau 1937, ka whakatau te kāwanatanga ki te anga ki te raruraru nei, nā te mea, i whakakitea e tētahi tirotirohanga āna kāore ngā whare o ngā kaimahi Māori e rite ana ki ngā ritenga o te Agricultural Workers Act 1936, i meatia ai, me whakarato e ngā kaiahuwhenua he whare papai mō ā rātou kaimahi.   I tirotiro he āpiha nō ngā tari kāwanatanga i ētahi o ngā whare, ā, ka kōrero tahi rātou me te Mea o Pukekohe.  E 47 ngā kaiwhakatipu e whakarato ana i ngā whare (o 107 tōpū), engari e toru anake ngā whare “pai”.   E ai ki te komiti nei, me whakatū tētahi kāinga, kia 25 ngā pāhoka (me ngā tēneti e 20 mō ngā kaimahi arawheu), me ngā whare-paku motuhake, me ngā whare horoi.  Ki tā rātou māhere, ka whakanohoia tētahi whānau (tokorima ngā tāngata) ki roto i te pākoha kotahi, e 25 x 10 putu (7.6 x 3 mita), me tētahi ahi i roto hei tunu kai.  Ka whakahaeretia te puni nei e te kaitiaki (e pupuri ana i te mana pirihimana) kia tika te hauora me ngā whanonga o ngā kaimahi.[14]  Kīhai te komiti nei i kōrero ki ngā kaimahi.[15]

Nāwai rā, ka pupū mai he raruraru.  I te hotoke o 1938 ka tuku waea a George Parvin (koia he kaiahuwhenua, he mema nō te Kaunihera o Pukekohe, ko te māngai hoki o Franklin mō te Poari Hōhipera o Ākarana) ki te Pirimia e kī ana, 16 ngā tamariki Māori kua mate i roto i ngā marama e ono; ko te āhua o te noho te take i hemo ai rātou; ā, ko tōna tono, me whakatika ināia tonu nei e te kāwanatanga.  I kī hoki a Parvin, me whakatū he kāinga ki waho o te tāone.[16]  I whakahoki te Minita Māori Rīwhi, a Frank Langstone,[17] ehara i te kaupapa o te kāwanatanga kia whakatūria he pā Māori, ā, ko te hiahia o te kāwanatanga kia whakahokia ngā Māori ki ō rātou takiwā ā-iwi.[18]  He whakaaro heahea pea tēnei, nā te mea, e matea tonu ana ngā kaimahi e ngā kaiwhakatipu kai, ā, ka matea he moni e ngā kaimahi.

Ki te kāwanatanga, ehara tēnei i te take “Māori”, he take kē e pā ana ki te takiwā.  Me ū ngā kaiwhakatipu ki ngā ritenga o te Agricultural Workers Act, ā, i muri i te tau 1939, ka wātea he pūtea tārewa i raro i te Rural Housing Act kia hanga whare ai ngā kaiahuwhenua.[19]  Engari, ka mahara te kāwanatanga, me tahuri rātou ki te raruraru nei.  Ka tonoa e te Minita Māori kia whakatakotoria e te Tari te tokoitinga o ngā kaimahi e matea ana mō ngā māra, ā, ina mōhiotia, kia hangaia he pāhoka mō ngā whānau pakupaku, ā, kia panaia ngā whānau rārahi ki ō rātou kāinga tipu.[20]   Kīhai tēnei i whakamanahia.  Heoi, i te tau 1940, ka whakatau kē te kāwanatanga kia hangaia he whare ruarua, e toru ngā rūma-moe, kia rētia e ngā Māori.  Ka pīrangitia hoki kia whakamararatia ngā whare nei ki ētahi wāhi motuhake  “in order to avoid segregation”.  Kauaka te kaupapa nei hei whakatika pū i te raruraru nei; hei paku whakamāmā noa iho.[21]  Ka whakaaetia te £2000, ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te kimi i ngā tāngata papai hei kairēti, ki te rapu hoki he pīhi whenua mō ngā whare — kia kaua e neke atu i te kotahi eka, nā te mea “we don’t want Pa conditions”.[22]   

I tuhi hoki te Hekeretari o te Minita Māori (ko M.R. Jones) ki a Rev. P. Moke, e mea ana “Kei te mohio koe kinga uauatanga o to taua iwi mo te taha ki te waipiro me te purei kaari me era ahuatanga. Kaore te Minita i te pai kia noho huihui nga whare kei tata rawa mo enei ahuatanga.”[23]  I hiahiatia he kāinga [pā] motuhake e te nuinga o ngā Māori, i waho o te tāone, hei wāhi e noho ai rātou hei Māori, kia whakatūria he kura Māori, he whare hauora hoki.  Engari, i pīrangi kē te kāwanatanga kia noho tahi ngā iwi e rua, kia haere ngā tamariki ki te kura o te tāone, ā, kia āhua nui ngā rēti e utua ana e ngā Māori i runga i tō te kāwanatanga kaupapa whakapākehā. “The payment of rent involves responsibility, and responsibility is what the Maoris of Pukekohe must be taught if evils they are at present charged with can be overcome.”[24] 

Pērā me ngā Māori, i pīrangitia e ngā Pākehā he kāinga motuhake kia tū ki waho o tō rātou tāone,[25] engari he rerekē ō rātou take.  Kāore e kore, nā te mui mai o ngā whānau Māori ki waenganui o te tāone i ngā wīkene, i toko ake ai te ngākau kaikiri i roto i ngā Pākehā ki ngā kaimahi Māori.  I te hokonga mai a te kāwanatanga i ngā tekiona mō ngā whare, ka pitihana ngā Pākehā utu-reiti ki te Kaunihera, e kī ana, e tata rawa ana aua tekiona ki te tāone; mā te “putting Maoris at the whitemans [sic] front door” e heke ai te wāriu o ō rātou whenua, ā, ka aukatitia te haere whakamuatanga o te tāone.[26]  Ahakoa te whakahoki a Langstone, “a little sympathetic interest instead of intolerance would be more in keeping”, ā, me whakapai ngā āhuatanga o te noho o ngā Māori “as the original inhabitants of these islands,”[27] ka hokona atu ētahi o ngā pīhi whenua e te kāwanatanga. Tekau mā tahi ngā whare i hangaia kautia i te tau 1942.

Tērā tētahi atu mahi a te kāwanatanga hei whakapai i te āhua o te noho Māori, arā, he pāhoka “Public Works” i whakamahia kētia e te Ope Tauā.  I te urunga o Hapani ki roto i te pakanga, me te taenga mai o ngā Marikena ki Aotearoa, ka piki te hiahia ki ngā huawhenua, ā, ka āpititia e te Pukekohe Production Council ngā eka e 938 anō ki ō rātou māra, kia whakatipuria ngā 8,000 tana anō hei hoko atu ki te Ope Tauā.  Heoi anō, 150 ngā kaimahi hou e hiahiatia ana hei mahi i aua kai.  Ko te raruraru, kua wehe kē ētahi o ā rātou kaimahi Māori ki ngā mahi hira (“essential work”), ā, kāore ō rātou whānau e mahi ana ki ngā māra.  Ko te mea whakarapa kē mō ngā kaiwhakatipū, kīhai te mahi māra i tauākītia hei mahi hirā, nā reira, e wātea ana ngā kaimahi kia haere ki mahi kē.  Nā reira, ka tukuna e te kāwanatanga he pākoha e 50-60 hei whakatenatena i ngā kaimahi kia noho, kia hoki rānei, hei whakamanea hoki i ngā kaimahi hou.[28]  Engari, kīhai ngā raruraru i murua katoatia, he whakamāmā noa iho tēnei.

Ki te Tari Māori, e ai ki ngā ritenga o te Agricultural Workers Act, me whakarato he whare e ngā kaiwhakatipu kai, ā, ka tohea e rātou kia whakamanahia aua ritenga e te Tari Mahi.[29]  Ko te whakautu a te Tari Mahi, ahakoa e noho ana ētahi whānau ki tētahi māra, ka mahi rātou ki wāhi kē i ētahi wā.  Ehara ngā Māori i te kaimahi o ngā kaiwhakatipu kai; ka whakaaetia e te pāpā o te whānau he utu mō ia mārā, mō ia māra. Kāore he utu ā-hāora, he kirimana kē, nā reira, e ai ki te ture, ko te matua te rangatira o ngā kaimahi.  I kī hoki te Tari Mahi, he kirimana poto ō ngā kaiwhakatipu kai, ā, mehemea ka uruhia rātou kia whakarato i ngā whare, ka whakarērea e rātou te whakatipu kai.[30] Nā reira, ka tukuna e te Tari Māori a Kāpene Rangi Royal ki te tirotiro (anō) i ngā āhuatanga o ngā whare o ngā kaimahi Māori.[31]  E ai ki tāna pūrongo i te tau 1945, e 84 ngā whare e matea ana mō ngā tāngata e 500.[32]

I mahia hoki he tirohanga anō e ngā ākonga tokorua o te kura tākuta i te tau 1948.  I kitea e rātou ngā tāngata e 779 e noho ana ki ngā māra, e 410 o ēnei ngā tamariki i raro i te tekau mā rima tau.  132 ngā whānau Māori, e 80% o te hunga mahi katoa.  I te noho rātou i roto i ngā whare 126; e tino kikī ana ngā mea e 39.  E ai ki a rāua, 13 anake ngā mea “pai” (arā, ngā whare 11 he mea hanga e te kāwanatanga i 1942, me nga mea e rua anō); he “āhua pai” ngā mea e 66 (arā, ko te nuinga ngā pāhoka “Public Works”), engari, kotahi hāwhe e kikī rawa ana; 12 ngā mea kanukanu; ā ko ngā 35 e toe ana he “hovels quite unfit for human occupation”. [33]   I tuhia e Donald Hunt tāna tuhinga tohu-paerua i ngā tau o waenganui o te tekautau 1950.  Ka kī ia, tokomaha ngā kaimahi Māori e noho ana i roto i ngā pāhoka ā-kāwanatanga, engari, ka waiho tonu ngā “corrugated iron sheds” hei nohoanga, “with earth floors and primitive sanitary, washing and cooking facilities”.[34]  Engari, nā te tohe o te iwi Māori (me ngā Pākehā pea o tāone) ka whakatūria he kura Māori, he kura motuhake, e tata ana ki ngā māra i te tau 1952.[35]

Kua mārama nei, ahakoa ngā mahi a te tuatahi o ngā kāwanatanga Reipa ki te hanga i ngā whare mō te hunga pōhara i muri i te tau 1935, me te kaha ki te whakapai i ngā whare Māori ki ngā whenua Māori, ka tū tonu te raruraru o ngā whare kanukanu, o ngā whare kikino o ngā kaimahi Māori i Pukekohe mō te wā katoa o taua kāwanatanga.  I mōhio te Tari Māori, i te pāngia te hauora o aua whānau e te kino o te noho.  Ā, e ai ki tōna ake kaupapa, he taputapu ngā whare papai hei whakapākehā i te āhua o te noho o Ngāi Māori.  Ā, ahakoa ka hiahiatia e te iwi Māori me ngā Pākehā o te tāone kia whakatūria he kāinga Māori motuhake e tata ana ki ngā māra, kīhai te kāwanatana i whakaae.  Nā te aha te kāwanatanga i kore ai e hanga i ngā whare papai mō ngā kaimahi katoa?  Nā te kore pīrangi ki te whakapau moni, kātahi.  Ka rua, ki te whakaaro o te kāwanatanga, ehara māna e whakarato ngā whare mō ngā kaimahi, mā ngā kaiwhatipu kai kē.  Heoi, ka waiho tonu ngā whare kanukanu, ngā wharau, me ngā pāhoka pakupaku mō ngā kaimahi Māori rātou ko ō rātou whānau i mua, i waenganui, i muri i te wā pakanga.

 

Whakaahua: He whare i nohoia e ngā whānau Māori i te tau 1948.  Mai i S.L. Horwell & A.J. Seeley, “The Pukekohe Maoris”, Preventive Medicine Dissertation (Otago, 1948). Kei Hocken Collections.

 

[1] Donald T. Hunt, “Market Gardening in Metropolitan Auckland”, New Zealand Geographer, 15, 2 (1959): 132, 152.

[2] Hunt (1959), wh.145; “Notes of Interview between the Prime Minister (Rt. Hon. M.J. Savage) and Mrs. R.C. Clark, Wesley College, Paerata.” Accommodation for Agricultural Workers in Pukekohe District 1937-1941 MAW2459 Box 174, 19/1/324 (1), Archives New Zealand, Wellington,[AAWPD, 1937-1941]; Clipping, New Zealand Herald, 11/7/1944. Accommodation for Agricultural Workers in Pukekohe District 1940-1946 MAW2459 Box 175, 19/1/324 (2), Archives New Zealand, Wellington, [AAWPD, 1940-1946].

[3] Secretary, Te Akarana Maori Association ki te ētita o te Star, 27/7/1938. AAWPD, 1937-1941.

[4] T.H. Te Anga ki te Registrar, Native Land Court Auckland. 17/2/1938; Registrar, Native Land Court Auckland ki te Under-Secretary, Native Department, 1/7/1938;  AAWPD, 1937-1941; Meneti, Native Minister meeting with Pukekohe representatives, 16/11/1944. AAWPD, 1940-1946.

[5] Meneti, Native Minister meeting with Pukekohe representatives, 16/11/1944. AAWPD, 1940-1946.

[6] S.L. Horwell rāua ko A.J. Seeley, “The Pukekohe Maoris”, Preventive Medicine Dissertation (Otago, 1948), wh.1, 22. [Hocken Collections].

[7] Auckland Star, 8/11/1929: 7.

[8] Franklin Times, 24/8/1934: 5.

[9] Auckland Star, 15/11/1934: 14; Franklin Times, 29/3/1935: 4.  Tirohia hoki, Te Akarana Maori Association ki te Pirimia, 1/7/1938. AAWPD, 1937-1941.

[10] “Notes of Interview between the Prime Minister (Rt. Hon. M.J. Savage) and Mrs. R.C. Clark, Wesley College, Paerata.” AAWPD, 1937-1941.

[11] Franklin Times, 23/8/1929: 5.

[12] Angela Wanhalla, “Native Housing Surveys and Maori Health in New Zealand 1930-45”, Health and History, 8, 1 (2006): 101, 103.

[13] Wanhalla (2006): 102-3.

[14] “Report of the Committee set up to discuss the question of accommodation of Maori workers in the Pukekohe District ermpoyed on Market Gardens”. AAWPD, 1937-1941

[15] T.H. Te Anga ki te Registrar, Native Land Court Auckland. 17/2/1938, AAWPD, 1937-1941.

[16] George Parvin ki te Pirimia, 28/6/1938. AAWPD, 1937-1941.

[17] Ko te Pirimia, ko M.J. Savage, te Minita Māori hoki mai i 1935 tae atu ki tōna matenga i te tau 1940.  I taua wā, ko Langstone te minita rīwhi, tuarua rānei, ā, ka mate a Savage, ka whakatūria ia hei Minita tūturu, tau atu ki te tau 1943.  Kātahi a Rex Mason ka mahi hei minita.

[18] Acting Native Minister ki a A.G.A. Sexton M.P. 19/7/1941. AAWPD, 1937-1941.

[19] Secretary for Treasury ki te Minister of Finance,  22/7/1940; Clipping, NZ Herald, 31/8/1940; “Interview between the Native Minister (Hon. Frank Langstone) and Representatives of the Growers, Franklin District Council, and Pukekohe Town Board, at Pukekohe – 30th August, 1940.” AAWPD, 1937-1941. 

[20] Native Minister ki te Under Secretary, Native Department, 2/8/1938. AAWPD, 1937-1941. 

[21] Native Minister ki te Under Secretary, Native Department, 24/7/1940. AAWPD, 1937-1941. 

[22] Under Secretary, Native Department ki te Registrar, Native Land Court Auckland, 26/8/1940. AAWPD, 1937-1941. 

[23] Secretary to Native Minister ki a Rev. Percy Moke, 25/10/1940. AAWPD, 1937-1941. 

[24] “Pukekohe Maoris”. n.d. AAWPD, 1940-1946.

[25] Hei tauira, Town Clerk, Pukekohe Borough Council ki te Native Minister, 18/9/1941. AAWPD, 1940-1946.

[26] Pitihana ki te Mea, Pukekohe Borough Council, 28/11/1940. AAWPD, 1937-1941.  E kī ana hoki ngā kaipitihana, ka kawea ngā mate e ngā Māori, ka turituri rawa rātou, ā, ka whakamōreareatia ngā wāhine Pākehā i ngā pō.

[27] Native Minister ki a P. Maloney, 2/12/1940. AAWPD, 1940-1946.

[28] New Zealand Herald, 20/8/1942: 2; 9/9/1942: 4.

[29] Native Minister ki a Minister of Labour, 4/8/1944; Under Secretary, Native Department ki te Native Minister, 4/8/1944. AAWPD, 1940-1946.

[30] Minister of Labour ki te Native Minister, 17/8/1944. AAWPD, 1940-1946.

[31] “At Pukekohe on 16th November, 1944, the Hon. H.G.R. Mason, Native Minister and Minister of Education, met the Tribal Committee”. 17/8/1944. AAWPD, 1940-1946.

[32] Native Minister ki te Minister of Housing, 25/5/1945.  “Housing Maoris, 1944-1946.” AEFZ W5727 22618 Box 547.  Record Number: 1062/0011. Archives New Zealand, Wellington.

[33] Horwell & Seeley (1948), wh.1-3.

[34] Hunt (1959), wh.142.

[35] “Pukekohe Maori School, 1956” Auckland Council Libraries, https://kura.aucklandlibraries.govt.nz/digital/collection/photos/id/36760/rec/3 (he mea titiro: 20/3/2021); Frances Winiata rāua ko Piripi Winiata. “Winiata, Maharaia”, Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, he mea whakaputa i te tau 2000. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5w41/winiata-maharaia (he mea titiro: 19/3/2021)

 

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