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Te Kaupapa Wharenoho Māori

P A21 62 171
Maori Home Front Blog Avatar
Emma Campbell
16 Hereturikōkā, 2020

I te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua, tokomaha ngā rangatahi Māori i heke mai i te wā-kāinga ki ngā tāone mahi ai i ngā mahi nunui o te motu. Nui atu ana ēnei tāngata, ka uaua mai te kimi whare noho ai.  Nā ngā mahi nei o te wā pakanga i tere ai te whakatū i ngā wharenoho [hostels] hei wāhi mō ngā taitama me ngā taitamāhine o te iwi Māori.  I Tāmaki-makau-rau, e kīa ana ko te “Maori Hostel Movement”.

Ehara i te hou ngā wharenoho ā-tāone mō te iwi Māori.  He mea hanga e ētahi tāone he whare i ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau mā iwa o ngā rautau me ngā tau tōmua o te rua tekau, engari mō ngā Māori e tae mai ana ki te tāone mō te wā poto.  Ka tahuri hoki ngā hāhi ki te hanga wharenoho, he āwangawanga nō rātou i ngā tini taitamāhine Māori e haere mai ana ki Ākarana mahi ai hei hāwini. Kāore rātou i te tae atu ki ngā whare karakia, ko tā rātou mahi kē he ‘hanging about the street with nowhere to go’.[1]

Nō te marama o Hepetema 1939 i tīmata ai te pakanga, ā, ka whakarērea e ngā tini taitamāhine Māori ā rātou mahi hāwini kia mahi ai i ngā mahi hira i roto i ngā wheketere.  I te tau 1944, ka whakapuakina e Hīhita Jessie Alexander he kōrero whakatari i Papatoetoe mō ngā āhuatanga whakarihariha mō ngā wāhine Māori e noho ana ki Ākarana.  He roroa āna mahi o mua hei mihinare o te Mīhana Māori o te Hāhi Perehipitiriana, engari, i tāna rītaiatanga i te tau 1936, ka neke ia ki Tāmaki-makau-rau i anga ai ia ki te kaupapa wharenoho nei.[2]

I kimihia e Hīhita Jessie he wāhi pai hei ‘home for our Māori girls’.  I te tīmatanga, ka whakaratoa he kaputī utukore i roto i te whare o te Christian Alliance of Women and Girls. He mea tā he kāri-tono i roto i te reo Māori, ā, nā ēnei kaputī i taea ai e ngā taitamāhine te huihui tahi ki te tāone, ki te whakahoahoa hoki.  Hei tīmatanga tēnei mō te hanga i tētahi wharenoho mō ngā wāhine Māori; ā ka whakamahia e Hīhita Jessie tōna kāinga hei ‘rendezvous for lonely girls’ e ngenge ana, e pīrangi ana ki te aroha me te manaakitanga.[3]

Ka tahuri a Hītita Jessie ki te hāpai i te kaupapa nei. I taua wā, ko ia hoki te kaihautū o te Taha Māori o te Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). Nā reira, i ngā tau tōmua o te tekautau 1940, ka tū ia ki te kauhau atu ki ngā huinga o te WCTU mō te kaupapa nei.  Nō tāna kōrero ki te huihui i Papatoetoe, ka tautokona e te whakaminenga.  Nā te tumuaki o te WCTU, nā Mrs J. Long, te kaupapa i whakatakoto ki te komiti whakahaere o Ākarana, kia whakamānutia tūturutia te kaupapa nei kia whakatūria he wharenoho.[4] He ngākau whiwhita tō te rōpū nei, ā, ka kaha anga rātou ki te mahi moni, ki te rapu whare hoki.

I ngā tau o te pakanga, ka puta te māharahara ki ētahi, ka pēhea te noho pai o te rangatahi Māori i roto i te ao tauhou o te tāone.  Ko te āwangawanga hoki o ētahi kaihautū Māori, e aukatitia ana ngā whare pai, ngā mea tika, mō ngā taitamariki Māori e te ngākau kaikiri, whakatoihara hoki o te iwi Pākehā.  Nā konei te United Maori Women’s Welfare Society Incorporated (UMWWS) i whakatūria ai e ētahi wāhine Māori e noho ana ki Tāmaki-makau-rau i te tau 1943. I muri tata tonu nei, ka tarāwhetia, ka tukuna he tikanga whakahaere ki te Komiti ā-Iwi Māori o Ākarana kia tū he wharenoho ki ngā wāhi ahumahi mō ngā taitamāhine Māori.  Nā te tumuaki o te UMWWS, nā Matire Hoeft te kaupapa nei i whakatairanga.  I te mahara ia ki te hekenga mai o ngā taitamāhine Māori, tata ki te 700, ki te tāone; ko te nuinga e mahi ana ki ngā mahi-ahumahi hirahira, e whakangungutia ana rānei hei kaiako, hei nēhi rānei.[5] Ko te māharahara o Mrs Hoeft mā, kei kore aua wāhine e uru pai ki roto te ao hou o te tāone i runga i te ‘unusual situation created by the war’.  E ai ki te kaitiaki moni o tō rātou rōpū, ki a Waima Davis, ka tino whakaraerae ngā taitamāhine Māori i te kore-whiwhi ki ngā ‘suitable lodgings and decent home surroundings’.[6]

I te tīmatanga, ka whakaarohia kia pērā ngā wharenoho Māori ki ō te iwi Pākehā.  Kīhai te Komiti ā-Iwi i tautoko i te kaupapa, nō te mea, he tikanga kē tō rātou ki te whakatū i tētahi whare huihui mō te iwi Māori.[7]  Ka tahuri kē te UMWWS ki te komiti whakahaere o te WCTU nāna i tuku mai he pūtea mō te kaupapa.[8]  I mahi kaha te UMWWS ki te whakatū wharenoho i te taha o te WCTU.  Ka uru ētahi ki roto i te Auckland District Union, ā, tokotoru i tū hei mema o te Komiti Wharenoho Māori o taua rōpū.[9]   Kāore e tino mōhiotia, ka ahatia te UMWWS; tērā pea ka whakarērea i muri i te pakanga, ā, ka uru ngā mema ki roto i ētahi atu rōpū Māori.

Tērā tētahi atu rōpū e tohe ana ki te whakatū wharenoho, ko te Auckland United Maori Mission (UMM).  Nō ngā hāhi Porotehana te rōpū nei; i puta mai i ngā tau tōmua o te pakanga.  Nāwai rā, ka tapaina ko te “United Māori Mission”.  Ko Hīhita Jesse he mema nō te Komiti Whakahaere o te rōpū nei.  I tuwhera te wharenoho tuatahi o te UMM i te tau 1943, hei wharenoho, hei whare mīhana hoki.  Kīhai i roa, tekau mā rua ngā taitamāhine e noho ana ki reira, ko ētahi he akonga nō te Kura Paipera, hei kaiāwhina tā rātou mahi ki te wharenoho nei.[10]

I taua wā hoki, kua kohia e te WCTU he pūtea, ā, i te taha o tētahi nama ā-kāwanatanga, ka taea tētahi whare te hoko.  I Parnell te whare nei, tekau mā tahi ngā rūma.  I tuwhera tūturu i te 11 o Tīhema, 1943, ā, nōhia wawetia e ngā wāhine e rua tekau mā rua.  Tokoono he akonga nō te Epsom Training Institute; i te mahi ētahi ki ngā wheketere. He pai te whare nei mō ngā wāhine e rua tekau.  Ka utu moni ngā taitamāhine ki te noho ki taua wharenoho, engari, ka whāngaia ki ngā kai e toru i ia rā, i ia rā.  I reira hoki he wahine Māori hei “whaea”, hei kuki hoki.  Ka tae ki te mutunga o te pakanga, e rua ngā tau e tuwhera ana, ā, 150 ngā taitamāhine Māori kua noho ki reira.[11]

Ka tae ki waenganui o te tau 1944, kua tū ētahi wharenoho mō ngā taimamāhine Māori: ko tētahi i Ponsonby e rīhitia ana e te UMM; he wharenoho i Cleveland Road, i Parnell, e whakahaeretia e te WCTU; ā, he wharenoho i Wellesley Street West nā te Auckland Council of Christian Women.  I te tau 1945, ka whakatuwheratia e te Hāhi Perehipitiriana he wharenoho i Pentland Avenue, i Mt Eden, mō ngā ākonga ā-kura, ā-wānanga hoki, me ngā kaimahi.  I tukuna e te Tari Take Māori he whare i Gillies Avenue kia whakatūria he wharenoho mō ngā taitama Māori.[12]   I te mahi kaha hoki te Komiti Wharenoho Māori o te WCTU ki te kohikohi moni kia hokona ētahi atu whare.  I te tau 1947, ka tuwhera he wharenoho anō ki Shelley Beach mō ngā wāhine e rua tekau mā rima.  Ka hapahapaingia ēnei wharenoho hei ‘kāinga Karaitiana’ i tiakina ai ngā tinana, ngā hinengaro, me ngā wairua o ngā taitamariki.[13]

Ka tahuri ētahi atu rōpū ki te whakarato, ki te whakahaere i ngā wharenoho i ngā tau i muri i te pakanga. I ētahi wā, ka āwhina te kāwanatanga i ngā hāhi (ko te Hāhi Perehipitiriana tētahi) me ngā rōpū hapori (hei tauira, ko te Auckland Council of Christian Women).  Nā konei i nui haere ai te mahi tahi a ngā tini rōpū e whakahaere ana i ngā wharenoho mō ngā taitamariki Māori e heke ana ki te tāone mahi ai.

Whakaahua: He taitamāhine nō te Maori Girls’ Hostel, Tāmaki-makau-rau, me ō rātou hoa. Tae mai ai aua hoa ki reira mō ngā karakia me ngā huihuinga.  Kei waenganui o te kapa tuarua a Hīhita Jessie Alexander e noho ana.  ID: 21837  P-A21.61-171, Presbyterian Research Centre. https://prc.recollect.co.nz/nodes/view/6557

 

[1] “A Paper for Maori Day: The Maori Hostel Movement”, White Ribbon, puka 17, nama 8, (18 Hepetema 1945).

[2] “A Paper for Maori Day”; James Veitch, “Alexander, Jessie”, Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, he mea titiro i te 13 Ākuhata 2020, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/4a7/alexander-jessie.

[3] “A Paper for Maori Day”.

[4] “A Paper for Maori Day”.

[5] “Hostels for Maori Girls: Great work done by Maori Women’s Committee”, New Zealand Woman’s Weekly, puka 11, nama 4, (9 Tīhema 1943): 7.

[6] “Hostels for Maori Girls”, wh. 7.

[7] “Hostels for Maori Girls”, p. 38.

[8] “Hostels for Maori Girls”, p. 38.

[9] “Auckland District Union: Maori Girls’ Hostel”, White Ribbon, puka 50, nama 1, 1 Hānuere 1944.

[10] “A Paper for Maori Day”.

[11] “A Paper for Maori Day”; “Maori Hostel Work for Girls”, Auckland Star, 25 Hepetema 1945.

[12] Jessie Alexander, “A Survey of Maori Work in Auckland”, White Ribbon, Puka 22, nama 9, (1 Ōketopa 1950).

[13] “A Survey of Maori Work in Auckland”.

 

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